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By rights, this should be a short section. Even in the hands of the more avid splitters currently working on it, the Hominini has never been an overly large clade, and only a single species is still extant. And yet, because of the minor detail that this species happens to be our own, the Hominini continues to receive a great deal of attention.

One side-effect of this high level of interest is that the Hominini have suffered to an extraordinary degree from bad and/or sloppy taxonomy. Almost every species known from more than one fossil individual has accrued a sizeable synonymy, with many available specimens being assigned their own names (both species and genus) at some point, and some single specimens even being assigned multiple names. The tree below attempts some order from the chaos. It presents more of a splitter's perspective on hominin evolution - many species would not be recognised by more conservative workers, some of whom would reduce the genus Homo, for instance, to only three species - Homo habilis, H. erectus and H. sapiens. (Why is Homo neanderthalensis left out?) There is also a considerable degree of debate of how best to treat the paraphyletic series of taxa generally included in the genus Australopithecus (the species between 'Australopithecus' anamensis and Paranthropus robustus in the tree below), with none of the suggested alternatives being really satisfactory.

<==Hominini [Australopithecina, Australopithecinae, Praeanthropinae]
   |--Sahelanthropus Brunet, Guy et al. 2002
   |    `--*S. tchadensis Brunet, Guy et al. 2002
   `--+--Ardipithecus White, Suwa & Asfaw 1995
      |    |--*A. ramidus (White, Suwa & Asfaw 1994) [=Australopithecus ramidus]
      |    `--A. kadabba Haile-Selassie 2001 [=A. ramidus kadabba]
      `--+--Orrorin Senut, Pickford et al. 2001
         |    `--*O. tugenensis Senut, Pickford et al. 2001 [=Praeanthropus tugenensis]
         `--+--‘Australopithecus’ anamensis Leakey, Feibel et al. 1995 [=Praeanthropus anamensis]
            `--+--Praeanthropus Senyürek 1955
               |    |--P. afarensis (Johanson in Hinrichson 1978) (nom. cons.) (see below for synonymy)
               |    `--P. bahrelghazali Brunet et al. 1996 [=Australopithecus bahrelghazali]
               `--+--‘Australopithecus’ garhi Asfaw, White et al. 1999 [=Praeanthropus garhi]
                  `--+--Australopithecus Dart 1925 [incl. Plesianthropus Broom 1938]
                     |    `--*A. africanus Dart 1925 (see below for synonymy)
                     `--+--+--Kenyanthropus Leakey et al. 2001
                        |  |    `--*K. platyops Leakey et al. 2001 [=Homo platyops]
                        |  `--Paranthropus Broom 1938 (see below for synonymy)
                        |       |--+--P. aethiopicus (Arambourg & Coppens 1968) (see below for synonymy)
                        |       |  `--P. boisei (Leakey 1959) (see below for synonymy)
                        |       `--+--P. crassidens Broom 1949 [=Australopithecus crassidens]
                        |          `--P. robustus Broom 1938 [=Australopithecus robustus]
                        `--Homo Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy)
                             |  i. s.: H. dubius Koenigswald 1950 [=Pithecanthropus dubius]
                             |         H. kanamensis Leakey 1935
                             |         H. modjokertensis von Koenigswald 1936[=Pithecanthropus modjokertensis]
                             |         H. palaeojavanicus Weidenreich 1944 [=Meganthropus palaeojavanicus]
                             |--H. habilis Leakey, Tobias & Napier 1964 (see below for synonymy)
                             |--H. floresiensis Brown, et al. 2004
                             `--+--H. rudolfensis (Alexeev 1986) (see below for synonymy)
                                `--+--H. ergaster Groves & Mazák 1975 [=H. erectus ergaster]
                                   |--H. georgicus Gabounia, de Lumley et al. 2002
                                   `--+-----H. erectus (Dubois 1892) (see below for synonymy)
                                      |       |--H. e. erectus
                                      |       `--H. e. wushanensis
                                      `--+--H. antecessor Bermúdez de Castro, Arsuaga et al. 1997
                                         |--H. cepranensis Mallegni, Carnieri et al. 2003
                                         |--H. mauritanicus (Arambourg 1954) (see below for synonymy)
                                         `--+--H. heidelbergensis Schoetensack 1908 (see below for synonymy)
                                            `--+--H. neanderthalensis King 1864 (see below for synonymy)
                                               `--+--H. rhodesiensis Woodward 1921 (see below for synonymy)
                                                  `--H. sapiens Linnaeus 1758 (see below for synonymy)
                                                       |--H. s. sapiens
                                                       |--H. s. idaltu White, Asfaw et al. 2003
                                                       `--H. s. narmadensis Sonakia 1982 (see below for synonymy)

*Australopithecus africanus Dart 1925 [=Homo africanus; incl. A. prometheus Dart 1948, A. transvaalensis Broom 1936, *Plesianthropus transvaalensis]

Homo Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Africanthropus Dreyer 1935, Atlanthropus Arambourg 1954, Cyphanthropus Pycraft 1928, Meganthropus, Paleoanthropus Kohl-Larsen & Reck 1936, Pithecanthropus Dubois 1894, Protanthropus Haeckel 1895, Sinanthropus Black 1927, Tchadanthropus Coppens 1965, Telanthropus Broom & Robinson 1949]

Homo erectus (Dubois 1892) [=Anthropopithecus erectus, Pithecanthropus erectus; incl. Sinanthropus lantianensis Woo 1964, Homo leakeyi Clarke 1990 non Paterson 1940, H. erectus leakeyi, H. (Proanthropus) louisleakeyi Kretzoi 1984, Sinanthropus officinalis von Koenigswald 1953, H. erectus olduvaiensis Tobias 1968 (n. n.), S. pekinensis Black 1927, H. erectus pekinensis, H. (Javanthropus) soloensis Oppenoorth 1932, H. erectus soloensis]

Homo habilis Leakey, Tobias & Napier 1964 [=Australopithecus habilis]

Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack 1908 [incl. *Paleoanthropus njarensis Kohl-Larsen & Reck 1936, Homo saldanensis Drennan 1953]

Homo mauritanicus (Arambourg 1954) [=Atlanthropus mauritanicus, H. erectus mauritanicus]

Homo neanderthalensis King 1864 [=H. sapiens neanderthalensis; incl. H. breladensis Marett 1911, H. calpicus Keith 1911, H. primigenius Schaaffhausen 1880, H. transprimigenius Forrer 1908]

Homo rhodesiensis Woodward 1921 [=*Cyphanthropus rhodesiensis, H. sapiens rhodesiensis; incl. Africanthropus njarascensis Weinert 1939]

Homo rudolfensis (Alexeev 1986) [=Pithecanthropus rudolfensis, Australopithecus rudolfensis, Kenyanthropus rudolfensis]

Homo sapiens Linnaeus 1758 [incl. H. aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent 1825, H. sapiens afer Linnaeus 1758, Telanthropus capensis Broom & Robinson 1949, H. erectus capensis, H. sapiens capensis, H. (Africanthropus) helmei Dreyer 1935, H. leakeyi Paterson 1940, H. spelaeus Lapouge 1899, Tchadanthropus uxoris Coppens 1965]

Homo sapiens narmadensis Sonakia 1982 [=H. erectus narmadensis]

Paranthropus Broom 1938 [incl. Paraustralopithecus Arambourg & Coppens 1967, Zinjanthropus Leakey 1959]

Paranthropus aethiopicus (Arambourg & Coppens 1968) [=*Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus aethiopicus; incl. A. walkeri Ferguson 1989]

Paranthropus boisei (Leakey 1959) [=*Zinjanthropus boisei, Australopithecus boisei]

Praeanthropus afarensis (Johanson in Hinrichson 1978) (nom. cons.) [=Australopithecus afarensis, A. africanus afarensis; incl. A. africanus aethiopicus Tobias 1980 non Paraustralopithecus aethiopicus Arambourg & Coppens 1968, Homo aethiopicus (Tobias) non Bory de St. Vincent 1825, Meganthropus africanus Weinert 1950 (nom. rej.), *Praeanthropus africanus, H. antiquus Ferguson 1984, Australopithecus antiquus, H. antiquus praegens Ferguson 1989]

* Type species of generic name indicated


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Christopher 00:24, 2 July 2008 (PDT)

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