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Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of distribution and the processes that result in such patterns.

The patterns of species distribution at this level can usually be explained through a combination of historical factors such as , , , (and associated variations in , river routes, and so on), and , in combination with the area and isolation of landmasses (geographic constraints) and available energy supplies.

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The theory of biogeography grows out of the work of and other early evolutionary scientists. Wallace studied the distribution of flora and fauna in the Malay Archipelago in the 19th Century. With the exception of Wallace and a few others, prior to the publication of by and in 1967 (which expanded their 1963 paper on the same topic) the field of biogeography was seen as a primarily historical one, and as such the field was seen as a purely descriptive one.

MacArthur and Wilson changed this perception, and showed that the species richness of an area could be predicted in terms of such factors as habitat area, immigration rate and extinction rate. This gave rise to an interest in . The application of island biogeography theory to spurred the development of the fields of and (at least among British and American academics; landscape ecology has a distinct genesis among European academics).

Classic biogeography has been expanded by the development of , creating a new discipline known as . This development allowed scientists to test theories about the origin and dispersal of populations, such as ). For example, while classic biogeographers were able to speculate about the origins of species in the , phylogeography allows them to test theories of relatedness between these populations and putative source populations in and .

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Biogeography is a synthetic science, related to , , , , , and .

Some fundamentals in biogeography are

  • (change in genetic composition of a population)
  • (disappearance of a species)
  • (movement of populations away from their point of origin, related to )
  • range and distribution
  • endemic areas

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Abdullah MT. 2003. Biogeography and variation of Cynopterus brachyotis in Southeast Asia. PhD thesis. The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Corbet, GB, Hill JE. 1992. The mammals of the Indomalayan region: a systematic review. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hall LS, Gordon G. Grigg, Craig Moritz, Besar Ketol, Isa Sait, Wahab Marni and M.T. Abdullah. 2004. Biogeography of fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Sarawak Museum Journal LX(81):191-284.

Karim, C., A.A. Tuen and M.T. Abdullah. 2004. Mammals. Sarawak Museum Journal Special Issue No. 6. 80: 221—234.

Mohd. Azlan J., Ibnu Maryanto , Agus P. Kartono and M.T. Abdullah. 2003 Diversity, Relative Abundance and Conservation of Chiropterans in Kayan Mentarang National Park, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Sarawak Museum Journal 79: 251-265.

Hall LS, Richards GC, Abdullah MT. 2002. The bats of Niah National Park, Sarawak. Sarawak Museum Journal. 78: 255-282.

Wilson DE, Reeder DM. 2005. Mammal species of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC.

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