Charadriiformes

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<==Charadriiformes [Charadrii, Turnices]
   |  i. s.: Ibidorhyncha Vigors 1830-1831 [Ibidorhynchidae]
   |           `--I. struthersii
   |         Rhegminornis [Rhegminornithidae]
   |           `--R. calobates
   |         Chionis Forster 1788 [Chionidae]
   |           `--C. alba
   |--Burhinidae [Oedicnemidae]
   |    |--Milnea gracilis
   |    |--Esacus Lesson 1831 [Esacidae]
   |    |    |--E. magnirostris
   |    |    |--E. neglectus
   |    |    `--E. recurvirostris
   |    `--Burhinus Illiger 1811 [incl. Oedicnemus Temminck 1815]
   |         |--B. bistriatus
   |         |--B. capensis
   |         |--B. grallarius
   |         |--B. oedicnemus
   |         `--B. senegalensis
   |--+--Charadriidae
   |  `--+--Recurvirostridae
   |     `--Haematopodidae
   `--+--+--Turnicidae
      |  `--+--+--Glareolidae
      |     |  `--Dromas Paykull 1805 [Ardeolidae, Dromadidae]
      |     |       `--D. ardeola
      |     `--Lari
      |          |--Stercorariidae
      |          `--+--Alcae
      |             |    |--Mancalla [Mancallidae]
      |             |    `--Alcidae
      |             `--+--Laridae
      |                `--Rynchops Linnaeus 1758 [Rynchopidae, Rynchopini]
      |                     |--R. albicollis
      |                     `--R. niger
      `--+--+--+--Pedionomus Gould 1841 [Pedionomidae]
         |  |  |    `--P. torquatus
         |  |  `--Thinocoridae
         |  |       |--Attagis Geoffroy St.-Hilaire & Lesson 1830 [Attagidae]
         |  |       `--Thinocorus Eschscholtz 1829
         |  |            `--T. rumicivorus
         |  `--+--Jacanidae
         |     `--Rostratulidae [Rhynchaeidae]
         |          |--Rhynchaeites messelensis
         |          `--Rostratula Vieillot 1816 [incl. Rhynchaea Cuvier 1817]
         |               |--R. benghalensis
         |               |    |--R. b. benghalensis
         |               |    `--R. b. australis
         |               `--R. minator Olson & Eller 1989
         `--Scolopacidae
              |  i. s.: Limicola falcinellus
              |           |--L. f. falcinellus
              |           `--L. f. sibiricus Dresser 1876
              |         Xenus cinereus (Gueldenstaedt 1774)
              |         Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (Linnaeus 1758)
              |         Tryngites subruficollis
              |         Micropalama himantopus
              |         Heteroscelus incanus
              |         Philohela minor
              |         Palaeotringa
              |         Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
              |         Pisobia cooperi [=Tringa cooperi]
              |--Scolopacinae
              |--Calidrinae [Canutinae, Eroliinae]
              |    |--Calidris
              |    |--Aphriza Audubon 1839 [Aphrizinae]
              |    `--Philomachus Merrem 1804 (see below for synonymy)
              |         `--P. pugnax
              |--Gallinagininae
              |    |--Gallinago
              |    |--Lymnocryptes Kaup 1829 [Lymnocryptinae]
              |    |    `--L. minima
              |    `--Limnodromus Wied 1833 [Limnodrominae]
              |         |--L. griseus
              |         |--L. scolopaceus
              |         `--L. semipalmatus (Blyth 1848)
              |--Arenaria Brisson 1760 (see below for synonymy)
              |    `--A. interpres (Linnaeus 1758)
              |         |--A. i. interpres
              |         `--A. i. morinella
              |--Phalaropodinae [Lobipodinae, Phalaridopodidae, Phalaropodidae]
              |    |--Steganopus tricolor
              |    `--Phalaropus Brisson 1760 (see below for synonymy)
              |         |--P. fulicarius (Linnaeus 1758)
              |         |--P. lobatus (Linnaeus 1758)
              |         `--P. tricolor
              `--Tringinae
                   |  i. s.: Actitis macularia
                   |--Tringa
                   |--Prosobonia Bonaparte 1850 [Prosoboniini]
                   |    |--P. cancellata
                   |    `--P. leucoptera
                   `--Numeniini
                        |--Numenius
                        |--Bartramia Lesson 1831 [Bartramiini]
                        |    `--B. longicauda (Bechstein 1812)
                        `--Limosa Brisson 1760 [Limosini]
                             |--*L. limosa
                             |    |--L. l. limosa
                             |    |--L. l. islandica
                             |    `--L. l. melanuroides Gould 1846
                             |--L. fedoa
                             |--L. haemastica (Linnaeus 1758)
                             `--L. lapponica
                                  |--L. l. lapponica
                                  `--L. l. baueri Naumann 1836

Arenaria Brisson 1760 [incl. Cinclus Möhring 1752 (pre-Linnean) non Borkhausen 1797, Morinella Mayer & Wolf 1810, Strepsilas Illiger 1811; Arenariinae, Cinclinae, Morinellinae, Strepsilinae]

Phalaropus Brisson 1760 [=Phalaridopus Olphe-Galliard 1888; incl. Lobipes Cuvier 1817]

Philomachus Merrem 1804 [incl. Machetes Cuvier 1816; Machetinae, Philomachinae]

* Type species of generic name indicated

References

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Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327-349.

Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315-338.

Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones (R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet, eds.) pp. 339-373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Ericson, P. G. P., C. L. Anderson, T. Britton, A. Elzanowski, U. S. Johansson, M. Källersjö, J. I. Ohlson, T. J. Parsons, D. Zuccon & G. Mayr. 2006. Diversification of Neoaves: integration of molecular sequence data and fossils. Biology Letters 2 (4): 543-547.

Fain, M. G., & P. Houde. 2004. Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds. Evolution 58 (11): 2558-2573.

Falla, R. A., R. B. Sibson & E. G. Turbott. 1981. Collins Guide to the Birds of New Zealand and Outlying Islands 2nd ed. with addenda. Collins: Auckland.

Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

Heather, B. D., & H. A. Robertson. 1996. The Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. Viking: Auckland.

Holdaway, R. N., T. H. Worthy & A. J. D. Tennyson. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

Iwahashi, J. (ed.). 1992. Reddo Deeta Animarusu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

Mayr, G., & P. G. P. Ericson. 2004. Evidence for a sister group relationship between the Madagascan mesites (Mesitornithidae) and the cuckoos (Cuculidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 84 (1-2): 1-17.

Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

Sonobe, K., & S. Usui (eds.) 1993. A Field Guide to the Waterbirds of Asia. Wild Bird Society of Japan: Tokyo.

Sorenson, M. D., E. Oneal, J. García-Moreno & D. P. Mindell. 2003. More taxa, more characters: The hoatzin problem is still unresolved. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20 (9): 1484-1499.

Storr, G. M., & R. E. Johnstone. 1985. Field Guide to the Birds of Western Australia 2nd ed. Western Australian Museum: Perth (Australia).

Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Woinarski, J. C. Z., A. Fisher, K. Brennan, I. Morris & R. Chatto. 2001. Patterns of bird species richness and composition on islands off Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. Austral Ecology 26: 1-13.

Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).

Zeffer, A., L. C. Johansson & Å. Marmebro. 2003. Functional correlation between habitat use and leg morphology in birds (Aves). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 461-484.

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