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Darwin at age 51

Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an , who realised and demonstrated that all of life have over time from through the process he called . The became accepted by the and much of the general public in his lifetime, while his of natural selection came to be widely seen as the primary explanation of the process of evolution in the 1930s and now forms the basis of . In modified form, Darwin’s scientific discovery remains the foundation of , as it provides a unifying explanation for the .

At Darwin neglected to investigate , then the encouraged a passion for natural science. His established him as an eminent whose observations and theories supported ’s ideas, and publication of his made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and he collected on the voyage, Darwin investigated the and conceived his theory of natural selection in 1838. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when sent him an essay which described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of .

His 1859 book established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. He examined and in , followed by . His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, he examined and their effect on soil.

In recognition of Darwin’s pre-eminence, he was one of only five 19th-century UK non-royal personages to be honoured by a state funeral and was buried in , close to and .

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The seven-year-old Charles Darwin in 1816.

Charles Robert Darwin was born in , , England on 12 February 1809 at his family home, . He was the fifth of six children of wealthy society doctor and financier , and (née Wedgwood). He was the grandson of on his father’s side, and of on his mother’s side. Both families were largely , though the Wedgwoods were adopting . Robert Darwin, himself quietly a , had baby Charles in the Anglican Church, but Charles and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother. The eight year old Charles already had a taste for natural history and collecting when he joined the day school run by its preacher in 1817. That July, his mother died. From September 1818, he joined his older brother attending the nearby Anglican as a .

Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire, before going with Erasmus to the . He found lectures dull and distressing, so neglected his medical studies. He learned from , a freed black slave who had accompanied in the , and often sat with this "very pleasant and intelligent man".

In Darwin’s second year he joined the Plinian Society, a student group whose debates strayed into . He assisted ’s investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of in the , and in March 1827 presented at the Plinian his own discovery that black spores found in shells were the eggs of a skate . One day, Grant praised . Darwin was astonished, but had recently read the similar ideas of his grandfather Erasmus and remained indifferent. Darwin was rather bored by ’s natural history course which covered including the debate between and . He learnt of plants, and assisted with work on the collections of the , one of the largest museums in Europe at the time.

This neglect of medical studies annoyed his father, who shrewdly sent him to , for a degree as the first step towards becoming an Anglican . Darwin began there in January 1828, but preferred and to studying. His cousin introduced him to the popular craze for collecting which he pursued zealously, getting some of his finds published in Illustrations of British entomology. He became a close friend and follower of botany professor and met other leading naturalists who saw scientific work as religious , becoming known to these as “the man who walks with Henslow”. When exams drew near, Darwin focused on his studies and was delighted by the language and logic of 's Evidences of Christianity. In his final examination in January 1831 Darwin did well, coming tenth out of a pass list of 178.

Darwin had to stay at Cambridge until June. He studied Paley's which made an , explaining as God acting through laws of nature. He read 's new book which described the highest aim of as understanding such laws through based on observation, and ’s Personal Narrative of scientific travels. Inspired with "a burning zeal" to contribute, Darwin planned to visit with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the . In preparation, he joined 's geology course then went with him in the summer mapping strata in . After a fortnight with student friends at , he returned home to find a letter from Henslow proposing Darwin as a suitable (if unfinished) gentleman naturalist for a self-funded place with captain , more as a companion than a mere collector, on which was to leave in four weeks on an expedition to chart the coastline of South America. His father objected to the planned two-year voyage, regarding it as a waste of time, but was persuaded by his brother-in-law, , to agree to his son’s participation.

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The voyage of the Beagle

The voyage lasted almost five years and, as FitzRoy had intended, Darwin spent most of that time on land investigating geology and making natural history collections, while the Beagle coasts. He kept careful notes of his observations and theoretical speculations, and at intervals during the voyage his specimens were sent to Cambridge together with letters including a copy of for his family. He had some expertise in geology, beetle collecting and dissecting , but in all other areas was a novice and ably collected specimens for expert appraisal. Despite repeatedly suffering badly from seasickness while at sea, most of his zoology notes are about marine invertebrates, starting with collected in a calm spell.

On their first stop ashore at , Darwin found that a white band high in the cliffs included seashells. FitzRoy had given him the first volume of ’s Principles of Geology which set out concepts of land slowly rising or falling over immense periods, and Darwin saw things Lyell's way, theorising and thinking of writing a book on geology. In , Darwin was delighted by the .

At in he made a major find of fossils of huge extinct in cliffs beside modern seashells, indicating recent extinction with no signs of change in climate or catastrophe. He identified the little known , with bony armour which at first seemed to him like a giant version of the armour on local . The finds brought great interest when they reached England. On rides with into the interior to explore geology and collect more fossils he gained social, political and insights into both native and colonial people at a time of revolution, and learnt that two types of had separate but overlapping territories. Further south he saw stepped plains of shingle and seashells as showing a series of elevations. He read Lyell’s second volume and accepted its view of “centres of creation” of species, but his discoveries and theorising challenged Lyell's ideas of smooth continuity and of extinction of species.

As surveyed the coasts of , Darwin theorised about geology and extinction of giant mammals.

Three Fuegians on board, who had been seized during the and had spent a year in England, were taken back to as missionaries. Darwin found them friendly and civilised, yet their relatives seemed “miserable, degraded savages”, as different as wild from domesticated animals. To Darwin the difference showed cultural advances, not racial inferiority. Unlike his scientist friends, he now thought there was no unbridgeable gap between humans and animals. A year on, the mission had been abandoned. The Fuegian they'd named lived like the other natives, had a wife, and had no wish to return to England.

Darwin experienced an earthquake in and saw signs that the land had just been raised, including -beds stranded above high tide. High in the he saw seashells, and several fossil trees that had grown on a sand beach. He theorised that as the land rose, sank, and round them grew to form .

On the geologically new Darwin looked for evidence attaching wildlife to an older "centre of creation", and found allied to those in Chile but differing from island to island. He heard that shells slightly varied in shape, showing which island they came from. In Australia, the and the seemed so unusual that Darwin thought it was almost as though two distinct Creators had been at work. He found the "good-humoured & pleasant", and noted their depletion by European settlement.

The Beagle investigated how the atolls of the had formed, and the survey supported Darwin's theorising. FitzRoy began writing the official Narrative of the Beagle voyages, and after reading Darwin’s diary he proposed incorporating it into the account. Darwin's was eventually rewritten as a separate third volume, on natural history.

In Darwin and FitzRoy met , who had recently written to Lyell praising his as opening bold speculation on “that mystery of mysteries, the replacement of extinct species by others” as “a natural in contradistinction to a miraculous process”. When organising his notes as the ship sailed home, Darwin wrote that if his growing suspicions about the mockingbirds, the tortoises and the were correct, “such facts undermine the stability of Species”, then cautiously added “would” before “undermine”. He later wrote that such facts “seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species”.

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While still a young man, Charles Darwin joined the scientific elite

When the Beagle returned on 2 October 1836, Darwin was already a celebrity in scientific circles as in December 1835 had fostered his former pupil’s reputation by giving selected naturalists a pamphlet of Darwin’s geological letters. Darwin visited his home in Shrewsbury and saw relatives, then hurried to to see Henslow, who advised on finding naturalists available to catalogue the collections and agreed to take on the botanical specimens. Darwin’s father organised investments, enabling his son to be a self-funded scientist, and an excited Darwin went round the institutions being fêted and seeking experts to describe the collections. Zoologists had a huge backlog of work, and there was a danger of specimens just being left in storage.

eagerly met Darwin for the first time on 29 October and soon introduced him to the up-and-coming anatomist , who had the facilities of the to work on the fossil bones collected by Darwin. Owen’s surprising results included gigantic extinct , a near complete skeleton of the unknown and a -sized -like skull named resembling a giant . The armour fragments were from the , a huge armadillo as Darwin had initially thought.

In mid-December Darwin took lodgings in Cambridge, to organise work on his collections and rewrite his Journal. He wrote his first paper, showing that the South American landmass was slowly rising, and with Lyell’s enthusiastic backing read it to the on 4 January 1837. On the same day, he presented his mammal and bird specimens to the . The ornithologist soon announced that the Galapagos birds that Darwin had thought a mixture of , “” and , were, in fact, twelve . On 17 February Darwin was elected to the Council of the Geographical Society and Lyell's presidential address presented Owen’s findings on Darwin’s fossils, stressing geographical continuity of species as supporting his ideas.

Early in March Darwin moved to London to be near this work, joining Lyell's social circle of scientists and such as who described God as a programmer of laws. ’s letter on the "mystery of mysteries" of new species was widely discussed, with explanations sought in , not miracles. Darwin stayed with his brother , part of this circle and close friend of writer who promoted underlying the controversial Whig to stop welfare from causing overpopulation and more poverty. As a she welcomed the implications of , promoted by and younger surgeons influenced by , but anathema to Anglicans defending social order.

In mid-July 1837 Darwin started his “B” notebook on Transmutation of Species, and on page 36 wrote “I think” above the first .

In their first meeting to discuss his detailed findings, Gould told Darwin that the Galápagos from different islands were separate species, not just varieties, and the finch group included the “”. Darwin had not labelled the finches by island, but from the notes of others on the Beagle, including FitzRoy, he allocated species to islands. The two were also distinct species, and on 14 March Darwin announced how their distribution changed going southwards.

By mid-March, Darwin was speculating in his Red Notebook on the possibility that "one species does change into another" to explain the geographical distribution of living species such as the rheas, and extinct ones such as like a giant . His thoughts on lifespan, and developed in his “B” notebook around mid-July on to variation in offspring "to adapt & alter the race to changing world" explaining the , mockingbirds and rheas. He sketched branching descent, then a branching of a single , in which "It is absurd to talk of one animal being higher than another", discarding independent progressing to higher forms.

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While developing this intensive study of , Darwin became mired in more work. Still rewriting his Journal, he took on editing and publishing the expert reports on his collections, and with Henslow’s help obtained a Treasury grant of 1,000 to sponsor this multi-volume . He agreed to unrealistic dates for this and for a book on South American Geology supporting Lyell’s ideas. Darwin finished writing his Journal around 20 June 1837 just as came to the throne, but then had its proofs to correct.

Darwin’s health suffered from the pressure. On 20 September he had “an uncomfortable palpitation of the heart", so his doctors urged him to "knock off all work" and live in the country for a few weeks. After visiting Shrewsbury he joined his Wedgwood relatives at , but found them too eager for tales of his travels to give him much rest. His charming, intelligent, and cultured cousin , nine months older than Darwin, was nursing his invalid aunt. His uncle pointed out an area of ground where cinders had disappeared under and suggested that this might have been the work of , inspiring "a new & important theory" on their role in which Darwin presented at the Geological Society on 1 November.

pushed Darwin to take on the duties of Secretary of the Geological Society. After initially declining the work, he accepted the post in March 1838. Despite the grind of writing and editing the Beagle reports, Darwin made remarkable progress on transmutation, taking every opportunity to question expert naturalists and, unconventionally, people with practical experience such as farmers and . Over time his research drew on information from his relatives and children, the family butler, neighbours, colonists and former shipmates. He included mankind in his speculations from the outset, and on seeing an in the zoo on 28 March 1838 noted its child-like behaviour.

The strain told, and by June he was being laid up for days on end with stomach problems, headaches and heart symptoms. For the rest of his life, he was repeatedly incapacitated with episodes of stomach pains, vomiting, severe , palpitations, trembling and other symptoms, particularly during times of stress such as attending meetings or making social visits. The cause of remained unknown, and attempts at treatment had little success.

On 23 June he took a break and went “geologising” in Scotland. He visited in glorious weather to see the parallel “roads” cut into the hillsides at three heights. He later published his view that these were marine , but then had to accept that they were shorelines of a .

Fully recuperated, he returned to Shrewsbury in July. Used to jotting down daily notes on animal breeding, he scrawled rambling thoughts about career and prospects on two scraps of paper, one with columns headed “Marry” and “Not Marry”. Advantages included “constant companion and a friend in old age ... better than a dog anyhow”, against points such as “less money for books” and “terrible loss of time.”

Continuing his research in London, Darwin’s wide reading now included the sixth edition of Quotation:In October 1838, that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to work.

Malthus asserted that unless human population is kept in check, it increases in a and soon exceeds food supply in what is known as a . Darwin was well prepared to see at once that this also applied to “warring of the species” of plants and the struggle for existence among wildlife, explaining how numbers of a species kept roughly stable. As species always breed beyond available resources, favourable variations would make organisms better at surviving and passing the variations on to their offspring, while unfavourable variations would be lost. This would result in the formation of new species. On 28 September 1838 he noted this insight, describing it as a kind of wedging, forcing adapted structures into gaps in the economy of nature as weaker structures were thrust out.<ref name=JvW/> Over the following months he compared farmers picking the best breeding stock to a Malthusian Nature selecting from variants thrown up by “chance” so that “every part of [every] newly acquired structure is fully practised and perfected”, and thought this analogy “the most beautiful part of my theory”.

Darwin chose to marry his cousin, .

On 11 November, he returned to Maer and proposed to Emma, once more telling her his ideas. She accepted, then in exchanges of loving letters she showed how she valued his openness in sharing their differences, also expressing her strong beliefs and concerns that his honest doubts might separate them in the afterlife. While he was house-hunting in London, bouts of illness continued and Emma wrote urging him to get some rest, almost prophetically remarking “So don’t be ill any more my dear Charley till I can be with you to nurse you.” He found what they called “Macaw Cottage” (because of its gaudy interiors) in , then moved his “museum” in over Christmas. On 24 January 1839 Darwin was elected a .

On 29 January Darwin and Emma Wedgwood were married at Maer in an Anglican ceremony arranged to suit the Unitarians, then immediately caught the train to London and their new home.

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Darwin now had the framework of his theory of “by which to work”, as his “prime hobby”. His research included and extensive experiments with plants, finding evidence that species were not fixed and investigating many detailed ideas to refine and substantiate his theory. For more than a decade this work was in the background to his main occupation, publication of the scientific results of the Beagle voyage.

When FitzRoy’s Narrative was published in May 1839, Darwin’s was such a success as the third volume that later that year it was published on its own.

Early in 1842, Darwin wrote about his ideas to , who noted that his ally "denies seeing a beginning to each crop of species”. Darwin’s book on was published in May after more than three years of work. He then wrote a “pencil sketch” of his theory. On 11 January 1844 Darwin mentioned his theorising to the botanist , writing with melodramatic humour “it is like confessing a murder”. Hooker replied “There may in my opinion have been a series of productions on different spots, & also a gradual change of species. I shall be delighted to hear how you think that this change may have taken place, as no presently conceived opinions satisfy me on the subject.”

At , Darwin took exercise on his “Thinking Path”.

By July, Darwin had expanded his “sketch” into a 230-page “Essay”, to be expanded with his research results if he died prematurely. In November public controversy erupted over ideas of evolutionary progress in the anonymously published , a well written best-seller which widened public interest in transmutation. Darwin scorned its amateurish geology and zoology, but carefully reviewed his own arguments.

Darwin completed his third geological book in 1846. He now renewed a fascination and expertise in , dating back to his student days with , by dissecting and classifying the he had collected on the voyage, enjoying observing beautiful structures and thinking about comparisons with allied structures. In 1847, Hooker read the “Essay” and sent notes that provided Darwin with the calm critical feedback that he needed, but would not commit himself and questioned Darwin’s opposition to continuing acts of .

In an attempt to improve his chronic ill health, Darwin went in 1849 to Dr. ’s spa and was surprised to find some benefit from . Then in 1851 his treasured daughter fell ill, reawakening his fears that his illness might be hereditary, and after a long series of crises she died.

In eight years of work on barnacles (Cirripedia), Darwin's theory helped him to find “” showing that slightly changed body parts served different functions to meet new conditions, and in some he found minute males on , showing an in evolution of . In 1853 it earned him the ’s Royal Medal, and it made his reputation as a .

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Darwin was forced into swift publication of his theory of .

By the start of 1856, Darwin was investigating whether eggs and could survive travel across seawater to spread species across oceans. increasingly doubted the traditional view that species were fixed, but their young friend was firmly against evolution. was intrigued by Darwin’s speculations without realising their extent. When he read a paper by on the Introduction of species, he saw similarities with Darwin’s thoughts and urged him to publish to establish precedence. Though Darwin saw no threat, he began work on a short paper. Finding answers to difficult questions held him up repeatedly, and he expanded his plans to a “big book on species” titled Natural Selection. He continued his researches, and specimens from naturalists worldwide including Wallace who was working in . The American botanist showed similar interests, and on 5 September 1857 Darwin sent Gray a detailed outline of his ideas including an abstract of Natural Selection. In December, Darwin received a letter from Wallace asking if the book would examine human origins. He responded that he would avoid that subject, “so surrounded with prejudices”, while encouraging Wallace’s theorising and adding that “I go much further than you.”

Darwin’s book was half way when, on 18 June 1858, he received a paper from Wallace describing natural selection. Shocked that he had been “forestalled”, Darwin sent it on to Lyell, as requested, and, though Wallace had not asked for publication, he suggested he would send it to any journal that Wallace chose. His family was in crisis with children in the village dying of , and he put matters in the hands of Lyell and Hooker. They decided on a joint presentation at the on 1 July of ; however, Darwin’s baby son died of the scarlet fever and he was too distraught to attend.

There was little immediate attention to this announcement of the theory; after the paper was published in the August journal of the society, it was reprinted in several magazines and there were some reviews and letters, but the president of the Linnean remarked in May 1859 that the year had not been marked by any revolutionary discoveries. Only one review rankled enough for Darwin to recall it later; Professor of Dublin claimed that “all that was new in them was false, and what was true was old.” Darwin struggled for thirteen months to produce an abstract of his “big book”, suffering from ill health but getting constant encouragement from his scientific friends. Lyell arranged to have it published by .

On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (usually abbreviated to ) proved unexpectedly popular, with the entire stock of 1,250 copies oversubscribed when it went on sale to booksellers on 22 November 1859. In the book, Darwin set out “one long argument” of detailed observations, inferences and consideration of anticipated objections. His only allusion to human evolution was the understatement that “light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history”. His theory is simply stated in the introduction: {{quotation|As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form.

He put a strong case for , but avoided the then controversial term “”, and at the end of the book concluded that; quotation: There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.

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During the Darwin family's 1868 holiday in her cottage, took portraits showing the beard Darwin grew in 1864.

The book aroused international interest, with less controversy than had greeted the popular . Though Darwin’s illness kept him away from the public debates, he eagerly scrutinised the scientific response, commenting on press cuttings, reviews, articles, satires and caricatures, and with colleagues worldwide. Darwin had only said "Light will be thrown on the origin of man", but the first review claimed it made a creed of the “men from monkeys” idea from Vestiges. Amongst early favourable responses, Huxley’s reviews swiped at , leader of the scientific establishment Huxley was trying to overthrow. When Owen's review appeared it joined those attacking the book.

The 's response was mixed. Darwin’s old Cambridge tutors and dismissed the ideas, but interpreted natural selection as an instrument of God's design, with the cleric seeing it as "just as noble a conception of Deity". In 1860, the publication of by seven liberal Anglican theologians diverted attention from Darwin, with its ideas including attacked by church authorities as . In it, argued that broke God’s laws, so belief in them was , and praised “Mr Darwin’s masterly volume [supporting] the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature”. discussed with Darwin, who imported and distributed Gray’s pamphlet on , Natural Selection is not inconsistent with .

In a legendary confrontation at the public during a meeting of the , the , though not opposed to , argued against Darwin's explanation. In the ensuing debate argued strongly for Darwin and established himself as “Darwin’s bulldog”. Both sides came away feeling victorious, with Huxley claiming that on being asked by Wilberforce whether he was descended from monkeys on his grandfather’s side or his grandmother’s side, Huxley muttered: “The Lord has delivered him into my hands” and replied that he “would rather be descended from an ape than from a cultivated man who used his gifts of culture and eloquence in the service of prejudice and falsehood”.

As "" became widely accepted in the 1870s, amusing caricatures of him with an or body symbolised evolution.

Even Darwin's close friends Gray, Hooker, Huxley and Lyell still expressed various reservations but gave strong support, as did many others, particularly younger naturalists. Gray and Lyell sought reconciliation with faith, while Huxley portrayed a polarisation between religion and science. He campaigned pugnaciously against the authority of the clergy in education, aiming to overturn the dominance of clergymen and aristocratic amateurs under Owen in favour of a new generation of professional scientists. Owen mistakenly claimed certain anatomical differences between ape and , and accused Huxley of advocating “Ape Origin of Man”. Huxley gladly did just that, and his campaign over two years was devastatingly successful in ousting Owen and the “old guard”.

The Origin of Species was translated into many languages, becoming a staple scientific text attracting thoughtful attention from all walks of life, including the “working men” who flocked to Huxley’s lectures. Darwin’s theory also resonated with various movements at the time and became a key fixture of popular culture.

became a movement covering a wide range of evolutionary ideas. In 1863 popularised prehistory, though his caution on evolution disappointed Darwin. Weeks later showed that anatomically, humans are apes, then by provided empirical evidence of natural selection. Lobbying brought Darwin Britain's highest scientific honour, the ’s , awarded on 3 November 1864. That day, Huxley held the first meeting of what became the influential devoted to "science, pure and free, untrammelled by religious dogmas".

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By 1879, an increasingly famous Darwin had suffered years of illness.
More detailed articles cover Darwin’s life , and

Despite repeated bouts of illness during the last twenty-two years of his life, Darwin pressed on with his work. He had published as an of his theory, but more controversial aspects of his “big book” were still incomplete, including his views on humankind’s descent from earlier animals, and possible causes underlying the development of society and of human mental abilities. He had yet to explain features with decorative beauty but no obvious utility. His experiments, research and writing continued.

When Darwin’s daughter fell ill, he set aside his experiments with seedlings and domestic animals to accompany her to a seaside resort where he became interested in wild . This developed into an innovative study of how their beautiful flowers served to control insect and ensure . As with the barnacles, homologous parts served different functions in different species. Back at home, he lay on his sickbed in a room filled with experiments on . Visitors included who had spread a version of Darwinismus in Germany. Wallace remained supportive, though he increasingly turned to .

The first part of Darwin's planned “big book”, , grew to two huge volumes, forcing him to leave out and . It sold briskly in 1868 despite its size, but interest tailed off. He wrote most of a second section on natural selection, but it remained unpublished in his lifetime.

for 1882, published shortly before Darwin’s death, depicts him amidst evolution from chaos to Victorian gentleman with the title Man Is But A Worm.

had already popularised human prehistory, and had shown that anatomically humans are apes. With published in 1871, Darwin set out evidence from numerous sources that humans are animals, showing continuity of physical and mental attributes, and presented to explain impractical animal features such as the 's plumage as well as human evolution of , differences between sexes, and physical and cultural , while emphasising that humans are all one species. His research using images was expanded in his 1872 book , one of the first books to feature printed photographs, which discussed the and its continuity with the . Both books proved very popular, and Darwin was impressed by the general assent with which his views had been received, remarking that "everybody is talking about it without being shocked." His conclusion was "that man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system–with all these exalted powers–Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin.”

His evolution-related experiments and investigations culminated in books on the movement of climbing plants, , the effects of and of plants, different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, and . In his last book, he returned to the effect have on soil formation.

He died in Downe, , England, on 19 April 1882. He had expected to be buried in St Mary’s churchyard at Downe, but at the request of Darwin’s colleagues, (President of the ) arranged for Darwin to be given a and buried in , close to and . Only five non-royal personages were granted that honour of a UK state funeral during the 19th century.

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Darwin and his eldest son in 1842.
Darwin’s Children
William Erasmus Darwin (27 December 1839–1914)
(2 March 1841–22 April 1851)
Mary Eleanor Darwin (23 September 1842–16 October 1842)
(25 September 1843–1929)
(9 July 1845–7 December 1912)
(8 July 1847–1926)
(16 August 1848–19 September 1925)
(15 January 1850–26 March 1943)
(13 May 1851–29 September 1928)
(6 December 1856–28 June 1858)

The Darwins had ten children: two died in infancy, and death at the age of ten had a devastating effect on her parents. Charles was a devoted father and uncommonly attentive to his children. Whenever they fell ill he feared that they might have inherited weaknesses from due to the close family ties he shared with his wife and cousin, . He examined this topic in his writings, contrasting it with the advantages of crossing amongst many organisms. Despite his fears, most of the surviving children went on to have distinguished careers as notable members of the prominent .

Of his surviving children, , and became Fellows of the Royal Society, distinguished as , and , respectively. His son , on the other hand, went on to be a , , , and mentor of the statistician and evolutionary biologist .

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In 1851 Darwin was devastated when his daughter died. By then his faith in had dwindled, and he had stopped going to church.

Darwin’s family tradition was , while his father and grandfather were , and his and were . When going to Cambridge to become an clergyman, he did not doubt the of the . He learnt 's science which, like ’s , sought explanations in laws of nature rather than miracles and saw of species as . On the Beagle voyage Darwin looked for "centres of creation" to explain distribution, and related the found near to distinct "periods of Creation". He remained quite and would quote the Bible as an authority on .

By his return he was , and wondered why all religions should not be equally valid. In the next few years, while intensively speculating on geology and , he gave much thought to religion and openly discussed this with , whose beliefs also came from intensive study and questioning. The of Paley and vindicated evils such as starvation as a result of a benevolent creator's laws which had an overall good effect. To Darwin, produced the good of adaptation but removed the need for design, and he could not see the work of an omnipotent deity in all the pain and suffering such as the paralysing as live food for its eggs.<ref name=miles/> He still viewed organisms as perfectly adapted, and reflects theological views. Though he thought of religion as a survival strategy, Darwin still believed that God was the ultimate lawgiver.

Darwin continued to play a leading part in the parish work of the local church, but from around 1849 would go for a walk on Sundays while his family attended church. Though reticent about his religious views, in 1879 he responded that he had never been an atheist in the sense of denying the existence of a God, and that generally “an would be the more correct description of my state of mind.”

The “”, published in 1915, claimed that Darwin had reverted back to Christianity on his sickbed. The claims were refuted by Darwin’s children and have been dismissed as false by historians. His last words were to his family, telling Emma "I am not the least afraid of death – Remember what a good wife you have been to me – Tell all my children to remember how good they have been to me", then as she laid down for a rest, he repeatedly told Henrietta and Francis "It's almost worth while to be sick to be nursed by you".

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Caricature from 1871

Darwin’s theories and writings, combined with ’s (the “”), form the basis of all modern biology. However, Darwin’s fame and popularity led to his name being associated with ideas and movements which at times had only an indirect relation to his writings, and sometimes went directly against his express comments.

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Darwin was interested by his 's argument, introduced in 1865, that of showed that moral and mental human traits could be inherited, and principles of animal breeding could apply to humans. In Darwin noted that aiding the weak to survive and have families could lose the benefits of , but cautioned that withholding such aid would endanger the instinct of sympathy, "the noblest part of our nature", and factors such as education could be more important. When Galton suggested that publishing research could encourage intermarriage within a "caste" of "those who are naturally gifted", Darwin foresaw practical difficulties, and thought it "the sole feasible, yet I fear , plan of procedure in improving the human race", preferring to simply publicise the importance of inheritance and leave decisions to individuals.

Galton named the field of study in 1883, after Darwin’s death, and developed . Eugenics movements were widespread at a time when Darwin's by , and in some countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Sweden and the United States, laws were imposed. in discredited the idea.

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Taking descriptive ideas as moral and social justification creates the ethical . When argued that was ordained by God to get humans to and show restraint in getting families, this was used in the 1830s to justify and . Evolution was seen as having social implications, and 's 1851 book Social Statics based ideas of human freedom and individual liberties on his evolutionary theory.

Darwin's theory of evolution was a matter of explanation. He thought it "absurd to talk of one animal being higher than another" and saw evolution as having no goal, but soon after the Origin was published in 1859 critics derided his description of a struggle for existence as a justification for the English industrial of the time. The term was used for the evolutionary ideas of others, including Spencer's “” as free-market progress, and 's ideas of human development. Darwin did not share the racism common at that time. He was strongly against slavery, against "ranking the so-called races of man as distinct species", and against ill-treatment of native people.

Writers used to argue for various, often contradictory, ideologies such as laissez-faire dog-eat dog capitalism, racism, warfare, and . However, Darwin's holistic view of nature included "dependence of one being on another", thus , , social reformers and such as Prince stressed the value of co-operation over struggle within a species. Darwin himself insisted that social policy should not simply be guided by concepts of struggle and selection in nature.

The term “” was used infrequently from around the 1890s, but became popular as a derogatory term in the 1940s when used by to attack the laissez-faire conservatism of those like who opposed reform and socialism. Since then it has been used as a term of abuse by those opposed to what they think are the moral consequences of evolution.

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Darwin in 1880, still working on his contributions to evolutionary thought that had had an enormous effect on many fields of science.

During Darwin’s lifetime, many species and geographical features were given his name. An expanse of water adjoining the was named by after Darwin’s prompt action, along with two or three of the men, saved them from being marooned on a nearby shore when a collapsing caused a large wave that would have swept away their boats and the nearby in the was named in celebration of Darwin’s 25th birthday. When the was surveying Australia in 1839, Darwin’s friend sighted a natural harbour which the ship’s captain named . The settlement of was officially renamed in 1911. It became the capital city of Australia’s , which also boasts and . , founded in 1964, was named in honour of the Darwin family, partially because they owned some of the land it was on.

Although related to American or rather than , the group of species related to those Darwin found in the became popularly known as “” following publication of 's book of that name in 1947, fostering inaccurate legends about their significance to his work.

In 1992, Darwin was ranked #16 on ’s . Darwin came fourth in the poll sponsored by the and voted for by the public. In 2000 Darwin’s image appeared on the , replacing . His impressive, luxuriant beard (which was reportedly difficult to forge) was said to be a contributory factor to the bank’s choice.

The has commemorated Darwin's achievements by the award of the since 1908.

As a humorous celebration of evolution, the annual is bestowed on individuals who “improve our gene pool by removing themselves from it.”

Numerous biographies of Darwin have been written, and the 1980 biographical novel by gives a closely researched fictional account of Darwin’s life from the age of 22 onwards.

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commemorating Darwin's birth and publication of .

has become an annual celebration, and the bicentenary of Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of are being celebrated by events and publications around the world. The “Darwin” exhibition, after opening at the in in 2006, was shown at the , the in , the in , then from 14 November 2008 to 19 April 2009 in the , , as part of the Darwin200 programme of events across the United Kingdom. The features a festival in July 2009. His birthplace is celebrating with "Darwin's Shrewsbury 2009 Festival" events during the year.

In the United Kingdom a special commemorative issue of the shows a portrait of Darwin facing an surrounded by the inscription 1809 DARWIN 2009, with the edge inscription ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES 1859. Collector versions of the coin will be released at a premium, and during the year the coins will be available from banks and post offices at face value.

In September 2008, the issued an article saying that the 200th anniversary of his birth was a fitting time to apologise to Darwin "for misunderstanding you and, by getting our first reaction wrong, encouraging others to misunderstand you still".

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Darwin was a prolific writer. Even without publication of his works on evolution, he would have had a considerable reputation as the author of , as a geologist who had published extensively on and had solved the puzzle of the formation of , and as a biologist who had published the definitive work on . While dominates perceptions of his work, and had considerable impact, and his books on plants including were innovative studies of great importance, as was his final work on .

Early in the Beagle voyage he nearly lost his position on the ship when he criticised FitzRoy's defence and praise of slavery. He wrote home about "how steadily the general feeling, as shown at elections, has been rising against Slavery. What a proud thing for England if she is the first European nation which utterly abolishes it! I was told before leaving England that after living in slave countries all my opinions would be altered; the only alteration I am aware of is forming a much higher estimate of the negro character." Regarding , he "could not have believed how wide was the difference between savage and civilized man: it is greater than between a wild and domesticated animal, inasmuch as in man there is a greater power of improvement", but he knew and liked civilised Fuegians like : "It seems yet wonderful to me, when I think over all his many good qualities, that he should have been of the same race, and doubtless partaken of the same character, with the miserable, degraded savages whom we first met here.

In the he mentioned the Fuegians and Edmonstone when arguing against "ranking the so-called races of man as distinct species".

He rejected the ill-treatment of native people, and for example wrote of massacres of men, women, and children, "Every one here is fully convinced that this is the most just war, because it is against barbarians. Who would believe in this age that such atrocities could be committed in a Christian civilized country?"

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  • – ; Darwin's publications, private papers and bibliography, supplementary works including biographies, obituaries and reviews.
  • Text and notes for many of his letters
  • ,
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