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Crinoidea


Pentacrinites fossilis (,Isocrinida,Pentacrinidae,), a crinoid whose fossils are known from the Lower of , Dorset.


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The popular names for crinoids are "sea lilies" (for fixed crinoids) and "feather stars" (for free-swimming crinoids). There are several hundred of stalked and unstalked crinoids inhabit the modern world's oceans, but this is just a tiny fraction compared to their abundance in past ages. The stalked forms inhabit the deep oceans, while stalkless forms are commonly found in shallower depths (including the shallows of ).

Crinoids have a cup-shaped head (the ) to which are attached long, branching . The food is transferred down the arms to the mouth by located on the and arms. The calyx is usually connected to the via a .

There are usually five or a multiple of five arms, which may be repeatedly branched. Grooves in the arms channel food to the mouth, which is located in the centre of the calyx. Both the mouth and the anus are on the oral side of the calyx. Some Paleozoic crinoids developed a with which would sit on the crinoid anus and feed on the shit (which was obviously rich in nutrients).

There are over a thousand known genera, mostly fossil forms.

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Organisms that have been identified as crinoids first appeared in the early in the middle of the period, although Conway Morris suggests these may actually be an extinct group of . Undoubted crinoids are known from the period, by which time they had already become abundant and important. They became so numerous during the era that their remains often form vast thicknesses of limestone, made up entirely of disarticulated crinoid fragments. These great crinoid gardens probably lived in shallow water. The group as a whole suffered a major crisis during the period when most of the crinoids died out, with a few surviving into the period. During the era there was another great of the crinoids, with more modern forms possessing flexible arms becoming widespread. In the they again declined, and most species live in very deep water

Most Paleozoic crinoids lived attached to the sea-floor by a flexible stem, which may be either cemented to the sea-floor, or have a root-like system buried into the sediment. Fossil crinoids have stems ranging in size from a few centimetres in length to as much as 21 metres.

Some crinoids, such as Pentacrinites shown in the illustration at the top of the page, seem to have lived attached to floating driftwood and complete fossil colonies are often found. Sometimes the driftwood to which they were attached became waterlogged and sank to the bottom, taking the attached crinoids with it. The stem of Pentacrinites can be several metres long.

Later in the Jurassic free-swimming forms became common. Many of free-swimming crinoids (such as Pterocoma) are found in the late Jurassic of Solnhofen in Germany, and the Cretaceous-dated of Kansas contains large numbers of Uintacrinus.

Most recent crinoids are free-swimming and lack a stem.

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The fossil possesses multiple arms and irregular plating. It was originally described as the basalmost crinoid, but some authors have suggested on the basis of its irregular organisation that it is not an but a (Ausich, 1988). As such, it does not appear in the phylogeny below.

Many of the taxa listed as were based on disarticulated skeletal elements such as (Jeffords, 1978), and as such may not be identifiable with entire specimens. Some may yet be distinctive enough that they can be properly identified, but many will doubtless languish in obscurity (though some arguably deserve to do so, such as and other equally awkward names coined by Yeltysheva and associates).

Crinoidea (see below for synonymy)
   |  i. s.: Pogocrinus Gagnebin 1930 (n. d.) [=Pogrocrinus (l. c.)]
   |           `--*P. raafensis Gagnebin 1930 (n. d.)
   |         Cryptocrinites von Buch 1840
   |         Cryptocrinus von Buch 1840 [Cryptocrinidae]
   |           `--C. laevis
   |         ‘Cryptocrinus’ Geinitz 1846 non von Buch 1840
   |         Decadactylocrinus Wachsmuth & Springer 1886
   |         Dicirrocrinus Schmidt 1934
   |           `--D. ramulosus
   |         Dimorphicrinus d’Orbigny 1850
   |         Paralageniocrinus Wanner 1949
   |         Cothocrinites Philippi 1876 (n. d.) [=Cothocrinus Zittel 1879]
   |         ‘Glyptaster’ Vinassa de Regny 1942 non Hall 1852 (n. d.)
   |         Heliocrinites Eichwald 1840 (n. d.) [=Heliocrinus Eichwald 1859]
   |         ‘Heliocrinus’ Quenstedt 1876 non Eichwald 1859 (n. d.)
   |         ‘Microcrinus’ Bolkhoviminova & Markov 1926 non Emmons 1858 (n. d.)
   |         Peripterocrinus Wanner 1916 (n. d.) [=Thalassocrinus Wanner 1916 non Clark 1911]
   |         Polytrema Rafinesque 1819 (n. d.)
   |         Algabasocrinus Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1970
   |           `--*A. obtusus Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1970
   |         Ampholenium Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*A. apolegma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Amsdenanteris Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*A. tennesseensis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Amurocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*A. imatschensis (Yeltysheva & Dubatolova 1961) (see below for synonymy)
   |         Anthinocrinus Yeltysheva & Sizova ex Stukalina 1961
   |           `--*A. ludlowicus Stukalina 1961
   |         Apertocrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*A. apertus Yeltysheva & Stukalina in Stukalina 1968
   |         Apiastrum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*A. candidum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Aporretocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*A. ligatus (Quenstedt 1876) [=Entrochus ligatus]
   |         Arenariocrinus Yeltysheva & Sizova in Dubatolova & Yeltysheva 1969
   |           `--*A. arenarius (Yeltysheva & Shevchenko 1960) [=Pentagonocyclicus arenarius]
   |         Aspidocrinus Hall 1858
   |           |--*A. scutelliformis Hall 1859
   |           `--A. digitatus
   |         Asteromischus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*A. stellatus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Astroporites Lambe 1896
   |           `--*A. ottawaensis Lambe 1896
   |         Avicantus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*A. dunbari Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Babanicrinus Stukalina 1969
   |           `--*B. tuberosus Stukalina 1969
   |         Bakanasocrinus Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1970
   |           `--*B. clavatus Stukalina in Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1970
   |         Baryschyr Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*B. anosus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Bazaricrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*B. bazarensis Stukalina 1968
   |         Beecrinus Dubatolova 1975
   |           `--*B. amplus Dubatolova 1975
   |         Bicostulalocrinus Dubatolova & Yeltysheva 1969
   |           `--*B. circumvallatus (Yeltysheva in Dubatolova & Shao 1959) (see below for synonymy)
   |         Blothronagma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*B. cinctutum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Bornium de Gregorio 1930
   |           `--*B. vetustum de Gregorio 1930
   |         Bystrowicrinus Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963
   |           `--*B. quinquelobatus (Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963) (see below for synonymy)
   |         Calleocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*C. granatus (Dubatolova 1964) [=Pentagonocyclicus granatus]
   |         Catagraphiocrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*C. quindecemlobatus (Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963) (see below for synonymy)
   |         Catholicorhachis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. multifaria Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Cionerisma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. exile Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Clematidiscus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. denotatus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Conspeciocrinus Stukalina 1969
   |           `--*C. conspectus Stukalina 1969
   |         Cotylocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*C. insignis (Dubatolova 1964) [=Pentagonocyclicus insignis]
   |         Craptocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*C. inconditus (Dubatolova 1964) [=Pentagonocyclicus inconditus]
   |         Crenatames Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. amicabilis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Crossotocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*C. cortinatus (Dubatolova 1968) [=Pentagonocyclicus cortinatus]
   |         Cyclocaudex Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           |--*C. typicus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--C. plenus
   |         Cyclocaudiculus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. regularis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Cyclocharax Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. fasciatus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Cyclocion Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. distinctus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Cyclocrista Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. lineolata Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Cyclocyclicus Yeltysheva 1955
   |           `--*C. tenuis Yeltysheva 1955
   |         Cyclomischus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. shelbyensis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Cyclomonile Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. monile Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Cyclopagoda Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. alternata Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Cyclopentagonalis Yeltysheva 1964
   |           `--*C. balticus Yeltysheva 1964
   |         Cycloscapus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. laevis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Cyclostelechus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*C. turritus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Cymatocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*C. undulaticostatus Dubatolova 1971
   |         Cystocrinus Roemer 1860 [=Cysticrinus (l. c.)]
   |           `--*C. tennesseensis Roemer 1860
   |         Decacrinus Yeltysheva 1957 [=Decarcinus (l. c.)]
   |           `--*D. pennatus Yeltysheva 1957
   |         Dentiferocrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*D. dentiferus (Yeltysheva 1960) [=Pentagonopentagonalis dentiferus]
   |         Desidiamphidia Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*D. frondea Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Dianthicoeloma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*D. insuetum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Dierocalipter Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*D. doter Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Dilanteris Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*D. trestes Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Dulanocrinus Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1970
   |           `--*D. uikuntasensis Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1970
   |         Tetragonotetragonalis Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963 (see below for synonymy)
   |           `--*T. quadrihamatus Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963 (see below for synonymy)
   |         Egiasarowicrinus Shevchenko 1971
   |           `--*E. egiasarowi (Yeltysheva 1960) [=Pentagonocyclicus egiasarowi]
   |         Elytroclon Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*E. elimatus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Entrochus Hofer 1760
   |         Euloncherostigma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*E. impunitum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Eurax Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           |--*E. ethas Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--E. eugenes
   |         Exaesiodiscus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*E. acutus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Exedrodiscus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*E. excussus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Fabalium Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*F. fabale Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Facetocrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*F. facetus (Stukalina 1961) [=Pentagonopentagonalis facetus]
   |         Fascicrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*F. flabellatus Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963
   |         Fibracrinus Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1970
   |           `--*F. fibratus Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1970
   |         Flexicrinus Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1970
   |           `--*F. flexus Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1970
   |         Floricyclus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           |--*F. hebes Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--F. granulosus
   |         Floripila Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*F. florealis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Flucticharax Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*F. undatus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Glyphidocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*G. singularis (Dubatolova 1964) [=Pentagonocyclicus singularis]
   |         Goniocion Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*G. gonimus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Goniostathmus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*G. annexus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Grammocrinus Eichwald 1860
   |           `--*G. lineatus (Eichwald 1856) [=Cyathocrinus lineatus]
   |         Graphosterigma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*G. scriptum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Gregariocrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*G. forus (Stukalina 1961) [=Pentagonocyclicus forus]
   |         Gurjevskocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*G. punctulatus Dubatolova 1971
   |         Haplotetocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*H. expolitus (Dubatolova 1964) [=Pentagonocyclicus expolitus]
   |         Hattinantheris Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*H. indianensis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Heterostaurus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*H. belknapensis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Heterostelechus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*H. texanus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Hyperexochus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*H. immodicus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Idromecrinus de Gregorio 1930
   |           `--*I. genistus de Gregorio 1930
   |         Ilematerisma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*I. enamma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Jonkerocrinus Wanner 1924
   |           `--*J. spinosus Wanner 1924
   |         Kasachstanocrinus Yeltysheva & Sizova ex Shevchenko 1966
   |           `--*K. asperum Shevchenko 1966
   |         Klunnikowicrinus Shevchenko 1971
   |           `--*K. klunnikowi (Shevchenko 1964) [=Pentagonopentagonalis klunnikowi]
   |         Kstutocrinus Shevchenko 1966
   |           `--*K. sublatus Shevchenko 1966
   |         Lamprosterigma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*L. mirificum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Laudonomphalus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*L. regularis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Leptocarphium Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*L. gracile Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Leseus de Gregorio 1930
   |           `--*L. palazzensis de Gregorio 1930
   |         Lichenocrinus Hall 1866 [Lichenocrinoidea]
   |           |--*L. dyeri Hall 1866
   |           |--L. milleri
   |           `--L. nodosus
   |         Lissocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*L. glaber (Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Dubatolova 1961) (see below for synonymy)
   |         Lomalegnum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*L. hormidium Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Malovicrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*M. fragosus Yeltysheva & Stukalina in Stukalina 1968
   |         Medinecrinus Stukalina 1965
   |           `--*M. vitreus (Stukalina 1961) [=Pentagonopentagonalis vitreus]
   |         Mediocrinus Stukalina 1965
   |           `--*M. medius Yeltysheva in Stukalina 1965
   |         Mooreanteris Miller in Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*M. waylandensis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Musivocrinus Termier & Termier 1958
   |           `--*M. arnouldi Termier & Termier 1958
   |         Northrosterigma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*N. merum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Obuticrinus Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963
   |           `--*O. bilobatus (Yeltysheva 1960) [=Pentagonopentagonalis bilobatus]
   |         Orocrinus Sieverts-Doreck 1951
   |           `--*O. hercynicus Sieverts-Doreck 1951
   |         Pachycrinites Eichwald 1840 [=Pachycrinus Eichwald 1860 (nom. vet.)]
   |           `--*P. compressus Eichwald 1840
   |         Pandocrinus Stukalina 1965
   |           `--*P. pandus Stukalina 1965
   |         Particrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*P. partitus (Yeltysheva 1960) [=Pentagonocyclicus partitus]
   |         Pennatocrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*P. subpennatus Yeltysheva in Stukalina 1968
   |         Pentacauliscus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. nodosus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Pentagonocyclicus Yeltysheva ex Yeltysheva & Shevchenko 1960
   |           `--*P. haldaranensis Yeltysheva & Shevchenko 1960
   |         Pentagonostaurus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. leptus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Pentagonostipes Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. petaloides Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Pentamerostela Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. delicatula Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Pentaridica Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. rothi Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Peribolocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*P. proximus (Dubatolova 1964) [=Cyclocyclicus proximus]
   |         Petalerisma Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. eriense Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Phragmoporella Rezak 1959
   |           `--*P. monilis Rezak 1959
   |         Platycion Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. mingusensis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Platyclonus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. dispar Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Platyparallelus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. parilis Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Platypateium Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. texanum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Platystela Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. proiecta Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Plummeranteris Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. sansaba Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Plussacrinus Yeltysheva 1957
   |           `--*P. flabellum Yeltysheva 1957
   |         Podoliocrinus Yeltysheva 1957
   |           `--*P. nikiforovae Yeltysheva 1957
   |         Podolithus Sardeson 1908
   |           `--*P. schizocrinus Sardeson 1908
   |         Polyporocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*P. octoforabilis Dubatolova 1971
   |         Polyptychella Jaekel 1918
   |           `--*P. esthona Jaekel 1918
   |         Porcunicrinus Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Sizova 1971
   |           `--*P. octonarius Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Sizova 1971
   |         Preptopremnum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*P. rugosum Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Ramulicrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*R. multipartitus (Yeltysheva 1955) [=Pentagonopentagonalis multipartitus]
   |         Rhysocamax Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*R. cristata Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Salairocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*S. textus (Dubatolova 1964) [=Pentagonocyclicus textus]
   |         Scelidiopternix Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*S. norops Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Schyschcatocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*S. astericus (Shevchenko 1966) [=Pentagonocyclicus astericus]
   |         Scillus de Gregorio 1930
   |           `--*S. pauper de Gregorio 1930
   |         Sidericrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*S. depressus Stukalina 1968
   |         Sokolovicrinus Yeltysheva 1968
   |           `--*S. dnestrowensis Yeltysheva 1968
   |         Sphenocrinus Eichwald 1856
   |           `--*S. obtusus Eichwald 1856
   |         Squameocrinus Stukalina 1968
   |           `--*S. privus (Yeltysheva 1964) [=Pentagonopentagonalis privus]
   |         Stegocrinus Sieverts-Doreck 1962
   |           `--*S. dohmi Sieverts-Doreck 1962
   |         ‘Stenocrinus’ Dubatolova 1971 non Wachsmuth & Springer 1880
   |           `--*S.’ bifurcatus Dubatolova 1971
   |         Stiberostaurus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*S. aestimatus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Tebagacrinus Termier & Termier 1958 [incl. Coenocrinus Valette 1934 non Forbes 1852]
   |           `--*T. solignaci (Valette 1934) [=Coenocrinus solignaci]
   |         Tessarocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*T. fimbriatus (Dubatolova 1964) [=Tetragonocyclicus fimbriatus]
   |         Teratocrinus Wanner 1924
   |           `--*T. spathulifer Wanner 1924
   |         Tetragonocyclicus Yeltysheva ex Dubatolova 1964
   |         Tetralobocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*T. perplexus (Dubatolova 1964) [=Tetragonocyclicus perplexus]
   |         Tetraptocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*T. permirus (Dubatolova 1964) [=Tetragonocyclicus permirus]
   |         Tetrastaurus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*T. nudus (Dubatolova 1964) [=Tetragonotetragonalis nudus]
   |         Tetraxonocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*T. indefinitus (Dubatolova 1967) [=Tetragonocyclicus indefinitus]
   |         Tjeecrinus Dubatolova 1975
   |           `--*T. crassijugatus Dubatolova 1975
   |         Tomeocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*T. observabilis (Dubatolova 1964) [=Pentagonocyclicus observabilis]
   |         Trigonocyclicus Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963
   |           `--*T. vajgatschensis Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963
   |         Trigonotrigonalis Yeltysheva ex Dubatolova & Shao 1959
   |           `--*T. asymmetricus Dubatolova & Shao 1959
   |         Trilobocrinus Dubatolova 1971
   |           `--*T. acceptus (Dubatolova 1964) [=Trigonocyclicus acceptus]
   |         Trochita Hofer 1760
   |         Trochites Bertrand 1763
   |         Tschironocrinus Stukalina 1973
   |           `--*T. tschironensis Stukalina 1973
   |         Unilineatocrinus Dubatolova & Yeltysheva 1969
   |           `--*U. unilineatus Yeltysheva & Dubatolova in Dubatolova & Yeltysheva 1969
   |         Verticillopora Rezak 1959
   |           `--*V. annualta Rezak 1959
   |         Wanakastaurus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |           `--*W. delicatus Moore & Jeffords 1968
   |         Xenobasis Faber 1929
   |           `--*X. williamsi Faber 1929
   |         Zeravschanocrinus Shevchenko 1966 [=Zerawschanocrinus (l. c.)]
   |           `--*Z. barbulatus Shevchenko 1966
   |         Autunia Rusconi 1955 (n. d.)
   |         Ascarum de Gregorio 1930 (n. d.)
   |           `--*A. montanum de Gregorio 1930
   |         Cladostoma Rafinesque 1819 (n. d.)
   |         Concretum de Gregorio 1930 (n. d.)
   |           `--*C. perplexum de Gregorio 1930
   |         Cophinus Murchison 1839 (n. d.)
   |           `--*C. dubius Murchison 1839
   |         Crisantum de Gregorio 1930 (n. d.)
   |           `--*C. stevensoni de Gregorio 1930
   |         Cystoidosaccus Faber 1929 (n. d.)
   |         Encrinites Guettard 1761 (n. d.)
   |         Entrochites Titius 1767 (n. d.)
   |         Imperatoria de Gregorio 1930 (n. d.)
   |           `--*I. marconii de Gregorio 1930
   |         Mestyrites Rafinesque 1819 (n. d.)
   |         Mirmus de Gregorio 1930 (n. d.)
   |           `--*M. ruptus de Gregorio 1930
   |         Pentagonites Rafinesque 1819 (n. d.)
   |         
   |         
   |         Passalocrinus Peck 1936
   |           `--*P. triangularis Peck 1936
   |         Timorocidaris sphaeracantha
   |         Hasseltides primigenius (Weyenbergh 1869)
   |         Phialocrinus Eichwald 1856
   |           `--*P. impressus Eichwald 1856
   |--
   `--+--+--
      |  `--
      `--Aethocrinida [Aethocrinea]
           |--Aethocrinus Ubaghs 1969 [Aethocrinidae]
           |    |--*A. moorei Ubaghs 1969
           |    `--A. murchisoni Donovan 1986
           `--Perittocrinidae [Perittocrinacea, Perittocrinina]
                |--Perittocrinus Jaekel 1902
                |    `--*P. radiatus (Beyrich 1879) [=Porocrinus radiatus]
                `--Tetracionocrinus Ubaghs 1971
                     `--*T. transitor (Jaekel 1918) [=Perittocrinus transitor]
       

Nomen nudum: Kasachstanocrinus pentamerus

*Arenariocrinus arenarius (Yeltysheva & Shevchenko 1960) [=Pentagonocyclicus arenarius]

*Bicostulalocrinus circumvallatus (Yeltysheva in Dubatolova & Shao 1959) [=Cyclocyclicus circumvallatus]

*Bystrowicrinus quinquelobatus (Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963) [=Pentagonopentagonalis quinquelobatus]

*Catagraphiocrinus quindecemlobatus (Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963) [=Pentagonopentagonalis quindecemlobatus]

Crinoidea [Actinoidea, Asterencrinidae, Brachiatoidea, Cionacineti, Costata, Crinozoa, Encrines, Eucrinoidea, Hyocrinites, Inadunata, Merocrinites, Palaeocrinoidea, Paleocrinoidea, Pentacrinoidea, Pinnastella, Pinnigrada, Stilastritidae, Stylasteritae, Stylastritae, Symbathrocrinites, Tessellata]

*Lissocrinus glaber (Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Dubatolova 1961) [=Pentagonocyclicus glaber]

Tetragonotetragonalis Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963 [=Dwortsowaecrinus Stukalina in Stukalina & Tuyutyan 1967, Dworzowicrinus Stukalina 1965 (n. n.)]

*Tetragonotetragonalis quadrihamatus Yeltysheva in Yeltysheva & Stukalina 1963 [=*Dwortsowaecrinus quadrihamatus]

* Type species of generic name indicated

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Anon. 1978. Unassigned taxa. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea (R. C. Moore & C. Teichert, eds.) vol. 3 p. T928. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

Ausich, W. I. 1998. Early phylogeny and subclass division of the Crinoidea (phylum Echinodermata). Journal of Paleontology 72 (3): 499-510.

Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones (R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet, eds.) pp. 247-265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Giribet, G., & J. A. Dunlop. 2005. First identifiable Mesozoic harvestman (Opiliones: Dyspnoi) from Cretaceous Burmese amber. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences 272: 1007-1013.

Jaekel, O. 1918. Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 3: 1-128.

Jeffords, R. M. 1978. Dissociated crinoid skeletal elements. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea (R. C. Moore & C. Teichert, eds.) vol. 3 pp. T928-T937. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

Moore, R. C., N. G. Lane, H. L. Strimple, J. Sprinkle & R. O. Fay. 1978. Inadunata. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea (R. C. Moore & C. Teichert, eds.) vol. 2 pp. T520-T759. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

Sprinkle, J., & R. C. Moore. 1978. Echmatocrinea. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea (R. C. Moore & C. Teichert, eds.) vol. 2 pp. T405-T407. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

Ubaghs, G. 1978. Skeletal morphology of fossil crinoids. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea (R. C. Moore & C. Teichert, eds.) vol. 1 pp. T58-T216. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

Weinberg Rasmussen, H. 1978. Articulata. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea (R. C. Moore & C. Teichert, eds.) vol. 3 pp. T813-T927. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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  • (includes taxonomic and phylogeneic review)

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MAK990511 Kheper Site; MAK020615; phylogeny CKT080304; Some material from

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