Demospongiae

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PORIFERA
Taxonomy Tentative Phylogeny
o Metazoa 
`--o PORIFERA
   |--Hexactinellida 
   `--+--+--Demospongiae 
      |  `?-Archaeocyatha
      |==Sclerospongiae (polyphyletic)?
      |==Stromatoporoidea (polyphyletic)?
      `--+--Calcarea 
         `--Radiata / Eumetazoa


Demospongiae


Permian reef diorama; featuring the large sponge Heliospongia (Demospongea,Epipolasida,Heliospongiidae) (middle and left background)


Demosponges are the most widespread and advanced class of sponges, as well as the largest and most diverse class. Some 90 to 95% of all sponge species belong here.

Demosponges construct their skeletons from one-rayed to four-rayed (monaxon or tetraxon) siliceous spicules, or of spongin fibres, or both. Spicules, when present, usually differentiated into megascleres (larger) and microscleres (smaller). Most living demosponges have skeletons of unfused spicules, although due to preservational effects, the fossil record of demosponges is mostly of fused forms.

Leuconoid.gif

Demosponges have a leuconoid construction (above), with many small, round, flagellated chambers.

While this class does contain freshwater groups, most are marine. Some demosponges are more than a cubic meter in size. There are three subclasses, the Homoscleromorpha, Tetractinomorpha, and Ceractinomorpha.

Fossil Record

Crumillospongia sp., a middle Cambrian Desmosponge fossil from the Wheeler Formation, House Range, Utah, USA [http://www.fossilmuseum.net/Cambrian-Explosion/Hazeliidae/Hazeliidae.htm
Demosponges include many siliceous fossil sponges, belonging to the Order Lithistida, a taxon that ranges from the Cambrian to the present, and are common from the Jurassic onward.

Lithistids are distinguished by irregular knobby spicules known as "desmas" that interlock to hold the skeleton together in a reticulate wall of great thickness. They fossilize readily and in recognizable form because the interlocking desmas retain the original form of the sponge. This group, which includes many fossil demosponge taxa, is now considered polyphyletic with members in both the Tetractinomorpha and the Ceractinomorpha. However, most workers have refrained from allocating the various families, owing to limited knowledge of the group and the fact that the numerous fossil genera would be difficult or impossible to place since the free spicules are almost always lost upon death of the sponge. [Moore et al, p.93, Clarkson, p.53, Smecher iNet ]

Taxonomy

<==Demospongiae [Cornacuspongida, Demospongea, Hadromerina, Myxospongiae]
   |  i. s.: Spongiidae
   |           |--Spongia
   |           |    |--S. oculata
   |           |    |--S. officinalis
   |           |    |--S. panicea
   |           |    `--S. tubulifera Lamarck 1814
   |           `--Hippospongia
   |                |--H. communis
   |                `--H. frondosa Hentschel 1912
   |         Plakortis
   |         Ophlitaspongia seriata Grant 1865
   |         Halichondriidae
   |         Stylocordyla borealis
   |         Rhizaxinella burtoni
   |         Chondrocladia gigantea
   |         Pachymatisma johnstonia
   |         Neofibularia mordens
   |         Synops anceps
   |         Tedania [Tedaniidae]
   |           |--T. actiniformis
   |           |--T. brevispiculata Thiele 1903
   |           |--T. coralliophila Thiele 1903
   |           |--T. dirhaphis Hentschel 1912
   |           |--T. maeandrica Thiele 1903
   |           `--T. reticulata Thiele 1903
   |         Xestospongia muta
   |         Esperiopsis digitata
   |         Verongia archeri
   |         Ianthella
   |         Clionaidae
   |           |--Thoosa istriaca Müller, Zahn et al. 1979
   |           `--Cliona
   |                |--C. celata
   |                `--C. orientalis Thiele 1900
   |         Polymastiidae
   |           |--Polymastia bursa Koltun 1966
   |           `--Tentorium levantinum Ilan, Gugel et al. 2003
   |         Lissodendoryx
   |           |--L. firma
   |           `--L. kyma
   |         Aplysilla
   |           |--A. rosacea
   |           `--A. sulfurea
   |         Geodiidae
   |         Mycale Gray 1867 [incl. Esperella Vosmaer 1885; Mycalidae]
   |           |--M. armata Thiele 1903 [=Esperella armata ms]
   |           |--M. fibrexilis
   |           |--M. macilenta
   |           |--M. moluccensis Thiele 1903
   |           |--M. rhaphidotoxa Hentschel 1912
   |           |--M. richardsoni
   |           `--M. sulcata
   |                |--M. s. sulcata
   |                `--M. s. aruensis Hentschel 1912
   |         Chalinidae
   |         Agelas [Agelasidae]
   |           |--A. cavernosa Thiele 1903
   |           |--A. cerebrum Assmann, van Soest & Köck 2001
   |           `--A. dispar Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864
   |         Anthracosyconidae
   |         Collatipora Finks 1960
   |         Haplosclerida
   |           |--Spongillidae
   |           `--Pellina Schmidt 1870 [Oceanapiidae]
   |                `--P. penicilliformis van Soest & Sass 1981
   |         Myxillina [Poecilosclerida]
   |           |--Coelosphaeridae
   |           `--Myxillidae
   |                |--Myxilla Schmidt 1862 [incl. Dendoryx Gray 1867]
   |                |    `--M. grata Thiele 1903 [=Dendoryx grata ms]
   |                `--Hymenancora lundbecki Hentschel 1912
   |         Suberitidae [Hadromerida]
   |           |--Prosuberites Topsent 1893
   |           |    `--P. geracei van Soest & Sass 1981
   |           `--Suberites
   |                |--S. domuncula
   |                `--S. ficus
   |         Tetillidae [Spirophorida]
   |           |--Paratetilla aruensis Hentschel 1912
   |           |--Tetilla
   |           |    |--T. bacca (Selenka 1867) [incl. T. ternatensis Kieschnick 1896]
   |           |    `--T. japonica
   |           `--Cinachyra Sollas 1886
   |                |--C. mertoni Hentschel 1912
   |                |--C. nuda Hentschel 1912
   |                |--C. subterranea van Soest & Sass 1981
   |                `--C. vertex von Lendenfeld 1907
   |         Chondrillidae
   |         Hyatella sinuosa
   |--Monaxonellida
   |    |--Clavulidae
   |    |--Desmacidonidae
   |    |    |--Melonanchora kobjakovae
   |    |    |--Merlia
   |    |    `--Desmacidon aegagropila
   |    |--Axinellidae
   |    |    |--Axinella Schmidt 1862 [incl. Axinosia Hallmann 1914]
   |    |    |    |--A. axifera Hentschel 1912
   |    |    |    |--‘Axinosia’ incrustans Burton 1930
   |    |    |    `--A. polypoides
   |    |    `--Phakellia
   |    |         |--P. arctica
   |    |         `--P. aruensis Hentschel 1912
   |    |--Renieridae
   |    `--Monocrepidae
   |--Ceratosa [Ceratellida]
   |    |--Halisarca [Dendroceratida]
   |    `--Dictyoceratida
   `--Tetraxonida
        |--Plakinida
        |    |--Plakina [Plakinidae]
        |    |    |--P. monolopha
        |    |    `--P. trilopha
        |    |         |--P. t. trilopha
        |    |         `--P. t. antarctica von Lendenfeld 1907
        |    `--Oscarella carmela
        |--Tetractinellida
        |--Tethya Lamarck 1814 [incl. Donatia Nardo 1833; Donatiida, Tethyidae]
        |    |--T. aurantium (Pallas 1766) [incl. T. limski Müller & Zahn 1968]
        |    |--T. clavigera Hentschel 1912
        |    |--T. lyncurium
        |    |--T. maza Selenka 1893
        |    `--‘Donatia’ tylota Hentschel 1912
        `--Lithistida
             |--Tetracladidae
             `--Anthaspidellidae

* Type species of generic name indicated

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Credits

MAK030430; taxonomy Christopher 23:05, 12 October 2009 (UTC)

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