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Parent taxa:
(check the following menu and phylogeny - the taxon in bold refers to the topic on this page)

Taxonomy Phylogeny


  • : Teliomycotina
    • :
  • Subdivision: Ustilaginomycotina
    • Class:
  • Subdivision:
    • Class: viagra without prescription drug
    • Class: Heterobasidiomycetes
`-- [Basidiomycotina]
   |    |--
   |    `-- [Gelimycetes, Hymenomycetia]
   |       |--
   |       `--+--
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   |             `--Auriculariales [Auromycetidae]
   `--Urediniomycetes [Septomycetes, Septomycotina]

, the "Fly Agaric" (, viagra without prescription drug, , , )

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This section adapted from :

The class Homobasidiomycetes is a taxonomic division in the subdivision of the division (in the Kingdom ). Included here are the so-called "true" mushrooms and a common name for this group of some 16,000 described species is the mushroom-forming fungi (53% of the described basidiomycetes).

Although morphology of the mushroom or fruiting body was the basis of early classification of the Homobasidiomycetes [ref: Fries EM. (1874). Hymenomycetes Europaei. Upsaliae.], this is no longer the case. As an example, the division between the gasteromycetes (puffballs) and homobasidiomycetes (most other mushrooms) is no longer recognized as a natural one—various puffball species have apparently evolved independently from hymenomycete fungi. However, most mushroom guide books still group the puffballs or gasteroid forms separate from other mushrooms because the older classification is still convenient for categorizing fruiting body forms. Similarly, modern classifications divide the gasteroid order between and . The molecular phylogenies of Binder and Hibbett (2002), and Hibbett and Binder (2002), found the majority of homobasidiomycetes to fall in eight major clades (comparable, but not identical, to the traditional orders except Lycoperdales), plus a few small extra clades. The branching order of these clades differed significantly between the publications, which used different methods, though the phalloid and cantharelloid clades were basal in both.

All members of the Class Homobasidiomycetes produce and these range in size from tiny cups a few millimeters across to giant greater than a meter across and weighing up to 130 kg (286 lb). The group also includes what are arguably the largest and oldest individual organisms on earth: the of Armillaria gallica have been estimated to extend over 150,000 square metres (37 acres) with a mass of 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) and an age of 1,500 years (Smith et al., 1997).

Nearly all species are terrestrial (a few are aquatic), occurring in a wide range of environments where most function as decayers, especially of wood. However, some species are pathogenic or parasitic, and yet others are symbiotic, these including the important symbionts of forest trees.

(The following menu and phylogeny refers to subtopics of this page)

Taxonomy Phylogeny

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          `--viagra without prescription drug
                     |-- clade
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Homobasidiomycetes [Aphyllophorales, Clavomycetidae, Pileomycetidae, Stereales]
   |  i. s.: Gastrosuillus
   |         Ramaria
   |           |--R. formosa
   |           |--R. obtusissima
   |           |--R. rubella
   |           `--R. stricta
   |         Ramaricium alboflavescens
   |         Gomphus [Gomphaceae]
   |           `--G. floccosus
   |         Araeocoryne
   |         Chaetotyphula
   |         Clavariadelphus pistillaris
   |         Palaeoclavaria Poinar & Brown 2003 [Palaeoclavariaceae]
   |           `--*P. burmitis Poinar & Brown 2003
   |         Coprinites dominicana
   |         Protomycena electra
   |         Archaeomarasmius leggeti
   |         Tephrocybe tesquorum
   |         Xerotus afer
   |         Diplocystis Berkeley & Curtis 1869
   |         Fomitiporia mediterranea
   |--+--+--Gastrosporium simplex
   |  |  `--+--Anthurus archeri
   |  |     `--Pseudocolus fusiformis
   |  `--+--+--Gautieria [Gauteriales]
   |     |  |    `--G. otthii
   |     |  `--Phallales
   |     |       |--Hysterangium stoloniferum
   |     |       |--Phallus
   |     |       `--Mutinus caninus
   |     `--+--Sphaerobolus stellatus
   |        `--
   `--+--+--+--Uthatobasidium fusisporum
      |  |  `--Thanatephorus practicola
      |  `--+--+--Tulasnella pruinosa
      |     |  `--Botryobasidium
      |     |       |--B. candicans
      |     |       `--+--B. vagum
      |     |          `--+--B. isabellinum
      |     |             `--B. subcoronatum
      |     `--+--Clavulina cinerea
      |        `--+--Sistotrema
      |           |    |--S. eximum
      |           |    `--S. sernanderi
      |           `--+--+--Multiclavula mucida
      |              |  `--+--‘Sisotrema’ brinkmannii
      |              |     `--Sisotremastrum niveocremeum
      |              `--+--Hydnum
      |                 |    |--H. albomagnum
      |                 |    |--H. repandum
      |                 |    `--H. rufescens
      |                 `--+--Craterellus cornucopioides
      |                    `--Cantharellus
      |                         |--C. cibarius
      |                         `--C. tubaeformis
      `--+--+--+--+-- (incl. )
         |  |  |  `--+--Oxyporus populinus
         |  |  |     `--Subulicium
         |  |  `--+--‘Gerronema’ marchantiae
         |  |     `--+--Sphaerobasidium minutum
         |  |        `--+--‘Hyphodontia’ alutaria
         |  |           `--Resinicium bicolor
         |  `--+--+--Gloeocystidiellum
         |     |  |    |--G. aculeatum
         |     |  |    `--G. leucoxanthum
         |     |  `--+--‘Stereum’ annosum
         |     |     `--+--‘Aleurodiscus’ botryosus
         |     |        `--+--Acanthophysium cerrusatus
         |     |           `--Stereum
         |     |                |--S. armeniacum
         |     |                |--S. hirsutum
         |     |                `--S. subpileatum
         |     `--+--+--+--Heterobasidion annosum
         |        |  |  `--Bondarzewia
         |        |  |       |--B. berkleyi
         |        |  |       `--B. montana
         |        |  `--+--‘Aleurodiscus’ scutellatus
         |        |     `--+--+--Auriscalpium vulgare
         |        |        |  `--Gloiodon strigosus
         |        |        `--+--+--Laxitextum bicolor
         |        |           |  `--+--Cymatoderma caperatum
         |        |           |     `--Dentipellis separans
         |        |           `--+--Creolophus cirrhatus
         |        |              `--Hericium
         |        |                   |--H. coralloides
         |        |                   |--H. erinaceum
         |        |                   `--H. ramosum
         |        `--+--+--Polyporoletus sublividus
         |           |  `--Albatrellus
         |           |       |--A. fletti
         |           |       `--A. skamanius
         |           `--+--+--+--Echinodontium tinctorium
         |              |  |  `--Laurilia sulcata
         |              |  `--Amylostereum
         |              |       |--A. areolatum
         |              |       |--A. chailettii
         |              |       `--A. laevigatum
         |              `--+--
         |                 `--+--Amphinema byssoides
         |                    `--+--+--Dichostereum pallescens
         |                       |  `--Vararia insolita
         |                       `--+--Peniophora nuda
         |                          `--+--Coronicium alboglaucum
         |                             `--+--+--Asterostroma andinum
         |                                |  `--Trechispora farinacea
         |                                `--Scytinostroma
         |                                     |--S. alutum
         |                                     `--S. portentosum
            `--+--+--Neolentinus dactyloides
               |  `--+--Heliocybe sulcata
               |     `--Gloeophyllum [incl. Stiptophyllum Ryvarden 1973]
               |          |--G. erubescens (Berkeley) Popoff 2003 (see below for synonymy)
               |          |--G. sepiarium
               |          `--G. striatum
               `--+--+--‘Pseudotomentella’ ochracea
                  |  `--+--+--Pseudotomentella
                  |     |  |    |--P. mucidula
                  |     |  |    `--P. nigra
                  |     |  `--+--Phellodon tomentosus
                  |     |     `--Bankera fuligineoalba
                  |     `--+--+--Sarcodon imbricatus
                  |        |  `--Hydnellum
                  |        `--+--Thelephora
                  |           |    |--T. muscigena Persoon 1801 (see below for synonymy)
                  |           |    |--T. palmata
                  |           |    `--T. vialis
                  |           `--Tomentella
                  |                |--T. coerulea
                  |                `--+--T. ferruginea
                  |                   `--T. stuposa
                  `--+--+--Galzinia incrustans
                     |  `--+--Vuilleminia comedens
                     |     `--+--Punctularia strigoso-zonata
                     |        `--Dendrocorticium
                     |             |--D. polygonioides
                     |             `--D. roseocarenum
                     `--+--Jaapia argillacea
                           `--+--+--Plicaturopsis crispa
                              |  `--+--+--Radulomyces molaris
                              |     |  `--+--Deflexula subsimplex
                              |     |     `--Stephanospora caroticolor
                              |     `--Athelia
                              |          |  i. s.: A. bombacina
                              |          |--A. fibulata
                              |          `--+--A. arachnoidea
                              |             `--‘Hyphoderma’ praetermissum
                                 |  `--+--‘Clitocybe’ clavipes
                                 |     `--+--Hohenbuehelia tristis
                                 |        `--
                                    |  |    |--H. citrinopallida
                                    |  |    `--H. conica
                                    |  `--+--Humidicutis marginata
                                    |     `--+--Chrysomphalina
                                    |        |    |--C. chrysophylla
                                    |        |    `--C. grossula
                                    |        `--Hygrophorus
                                    |             |--H. bakerensis
                                    |             `--H. sordidus
                                    `--+--+--‘Clitocybe’ lateritia
                                       |  `--+--Caulorhiza hygrophoroides
                                       |     `--Conchomyces bursaeformis
                                          |    |--R. trichotis
                                          |    `--+--R. alboniger
                                          |       `--R. dealbatus
                                          `--+--Lentaria albovinacea
                                             `--+--*Omphalina pyxidata
                                                     |--*A. auriscalpium (Fries) Fries 1849 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     |--A. acerosa (Fries) Kühner 1980 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     |    |--A. a. var. acerosa (see below for synonymy)
                                                     |    `--A. a. var. tenella (Kühner) Aronsen 1992 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     |--A. lobata (Persoon: Fries) Kühner ex Redhead 1984 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     |--A. retiruga (Bulliard: Fries) Redhead 1984 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     `--A. spathulata (Fries) Redhead 1984 (see below for synonymy)

Arrhenia acerosa (Fries) Kühner 1980 [=Agaricus acerosus Fries 1821]

Arrhenia acerosa (Fries) Kühner 1980 var. acerosa [incl. Agaricus glaucus Batsch 1786, Ar. glauca (Batsch) Bon & Courtecuisse 1987, Pleurotellus acerosus f. latisporus Favre 1955, Ar. latispora (Favre) Bon & Courtecuisse 1987]

Arrhenia acerosa var. tenella (Kühner) Aronsen 1992 [=Pleurotellus acerosus var. tenellus Kühner 1954]

Arrhenia auriscalpium (Fries) Fries 1849 [=Cantharellus auriscalpium Fries 1828; incl. Cyphella cochlearis Bresadola 1903, C. cochlearis var. auriformis Bresadola 1903]

Arrhenia lobata (Persoon: Fries) Kühner ex Redhead 1984 [=Merulius lobatus Persoon 1801, Cantharellus lobatus (Persoon) Fries 1823, Leptoglossum lobatum (Persoon: Fries) Ricken 1910]

Arrhenia retiruga (Bulliard: Fries) Redhead 1984 [=Helvella retiruga Bulliard 1791, Cantharellus retirugus (Bulliard) Fries 1823, Leptoglossum retirugum (Bulliard: Fries) Ricken 1910]

Arrhenia spathulata (Fries) Redhead 1984 [=Cantharellus spathulatus Fries 1828; incl. Leptoglossum muscigenum var. azonum Cout. 1932, Dictyolus lagunae Lázaro Ibiza 1902, Cantharellus lagunae (Lázaro Ibiza) Saccardo & Saccardo 1905, Agaricus muscigenus Bulliard 1786, Ca. muscigenum (Bulliard) Fries 1823, Leptoglossum muscigenum Bulliard: Karsten 1879, Cyphella cochlearis var. subsessilis Bresadola 1903]

Gloeophyllum erubescens (Berkeley) Popoff 2003 [=Daedalea erubescens Berkeley 1840, *Stiptophyllum erubescens (Berkeley) Ryvarden 1973, Xerotinus erubescens (Berkeley) Wright & Deschamps 1977]

Thelephora muscigena Persoon 1801 [=Arrhenia muscigena (Persoon) Quélet 1888]

* Type species of generic name indicated

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  • at the Tree of Life Web Project
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  • Smith, M., Bruhn, J., and Anderson, J. 1992. The fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms. Nature 356:428-431.

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Binder, M., & D. S. Hibbett. 2002. Higher-level phylogenetic relationships of homobasidiomycetes (mushroom-forming fungi) inferred from four rDNA regions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22 (1): 76-90.

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Phylogeny and References: 22:16, 3 October 2008 (PDT)

Introduction and general references ; adapted to Palaeso org MAK061005

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