Homobasidiomycetes

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BASIDOMYCOTA
Taxonomy Phylogeny

Kingdom: Fungi
Division: BASIDOMYCOTA

o Fungi
`--o Basidiomycota [Basidiomycotina]
   |--Orthomycotina
   |    |--Ustilaginomycetes
   |    `--Hymenomycetes [Gelimycetes, Hymenomycetia]
   |       |--Tremellales
   |       `--+--Dacrymycetales
   |          `--+--Homobasidiomycetes
   |             `--Auriculariales [Auromycetidae]
   `--Urediniomycetes [Septomycetes, Septomycotina]
      |--Uredomycetidae
      `--Sporidiomycetidae


Amanita muscaria, the "Fly Agaric" (Basidiomycota, Homobasidiomycetes, Hymenomycetes, Agaricales, Amanitaceae)


Contents

Introduction

This section adapted from Wikipedia:

The class Homobasidiomycetes is a taxonomic division in the subdivision Hymenomycotina of the division Basidiomycota (in the Kingdom Fungi). Included here are the so-called "true" mushrooms and a common name for this group of some 16,000 described species is the mushroom-forming fungi (53% of the described basidiomycetes).

Although morphology of the mushroom or fruiting body was the basis of early classification of the Homobasidiomycetes [ref: Fries EM. (1874). Hymenomycetes Europaei. Upsaliae.], this is no longer the case. As an example, the division between the gasteromycetes (puffballs) and homobasidiomycetes (most other mushrooms) is no longer recognized as a natural one—various puffball species have apparently evolved independently from hymenomycete fungi. However, most mushroom guide books still group the puffballs or gasteroid forms separate from other mushrooms because the older Friesian classification is still convenient for categorizing fruiting body forms. Similarly, modern classifications divide the gasteroid order Lycoperdales between Agaricales and Phallales. The molecular phylogenies of Binder and Hibbett (2002), and Hibbett and Binder (2002), found the majority of homobasidiomycetes to fall in eight major clades (comparable, but not identical, to the traditional orders except Lycoperdales), plus a few small extra clades. The branching order of these clades differed significantly between the publications, which used different methods, though the phalloid and cantharelloid clades were basal in both.

All members of the Class Homobasidiomycetes produce basidiocarps and these range in size from tiny cups a few millimeters across to giant polypores greater than a meter across and weighing up to 130 kg (286 lb). The group also includes what are arguably the largest and oldest individual organisms on earth: the mycelia of Armillaria gallica have been estimated to extend over 150,000 square metres (37 acres) with a mass of 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) and an age of 1,500 years (Smith et al., 1997).

Nearly all species are terrestrial (a few are aquatic), occurring in a wide range of environments where most function as decayers, especially of wood. However, some species are pathogenic or parasitic, and yet others are symbiotic, these including the important ectomycorrhizal symbionts of forest trees.


(The following menu and phylogeny refers to subtopics of this page)


Homobasidiomycetes
Taxonomy Phylogeny
Basidiomycota
  |--Urediniomycetes
  `--+--Ustilaginomycetes
     `--Hymenomycetes
          |==tremelloid taxa
          `--Homobasidiomycetes
               |--phalloid clade
               `--+--cantharelloid clade
                  `--+--hymenochaetoid clade
                     |--russuloid clade
                     |--polyporoid clade
                     |--Gloeophyllum clade
                     |--thelephoroid clade
                     |--Dendrocorticium clade
                     |--Jaapia
                     |--Boletales
                     `--agaricoid clade


Phylogeny

<==Homobasidiomycetes [Aphyllophorales, Clavomycetidae, Pileomycetidae, Stereales]
   |  i. s.: Gastrosuillus
   |         Ramaria
   |           |--R. formosa
   |           |--R. obtusissima
   |           |--R. rubella
   |           `--R. stricta
   |         Ramaricium alboflavescens
   |         Gomphus [Gomphaceae]
   |           `--G. floccosus
   |         Araeocoryne
   |         Chaetotyphula
   |         Clavariadelphus pistillaris
   |         Palaeoclavaria Poinar & Brown 2003 [Palaeoclavariaceae]
   |           `--*P. burmitis Poinar & Brown 2003
   |         Coprinites dominicana
   |         Protomycena electra
   |         Archaeomarasmius leggeti
   |         Tephrocybe tesquorum
   |         Xerotus afer
   |         Diplocystis Berkeley & Curtis 1869
   |         Fomitiporia mediterranea
   |--+--+--Gastrosporium simplex
   |  |  `--+--Anthurus archeri
   |  |     `--Pseudocolus fusiformis
   |  `--+--+--Gautieria [Gauteriales]
   |     |  |    `--G. otthii
   |     |  `--Phallales
   |     |       |--Hysterangium stoloniferum
   |     |       |--Phallus
   |     |       `--Mutinus caninus
   |     `--+--Sphaerobolus stellatus
   |        `--Geastrales
   `--+--+--+--Uthatobasidium fusisporum
      |  |  `--Thanatephorus practicola
      |  `--+--+--Tulasnella pruinosa
      |     |  `--Botryobasidium
      |     |       |--B. candicans
      |     |       `--+--B. vagum
      |     |          `--+--B. isabellinum
      |     |             `--B. subcoronatum
      |     `--+--Clavulina cinerea
      |        `--+--Sistotrema
      |           |    |--S. eximum
      |           |    `--S. sernanderi
      |           `--+--+--Multiclavula mucida
      |              |  `--+--‘Sisotrema’ brinkmannii
      |              |     `--Sisotremastrum niveocremeum
      |              `--+--Hydnum
      |                 |    |--H. albomagnum
      |                 |    |--H. repandum
      |                 |    `--H. rufescens
      |                 `--+--Craterellus cornucopioides
      |                    `--Cantharellus
      |                         |--C. cibarius
      |                         `--C. tubaeformis
      `--+--+--+--+--Hyphodontia (incl. Hymenochaetaceae)
         |  |  |  `--+--Oxyporus populinus
         |  |  |     `--Subulicium
         |  |  `--+--‘Gerronema’ marchantiae
         |  |     `--+--Sphaerobasidium minutum
         |  |        `--+--‘Hyphodontia’ alutaria
         |  |           `--Resinicium bicolor
         |  `--+--+--Gloeocystidiellum
         |     |  |    |--G. aculeatum
         |     |  |    `--G. leucoxanthum
         |     |  `--+--‘Stereum’ annosum
         |     |     `--+--‘Aleurodiscus’ botryosus
         |     |        `--+--Acanthophysium cerrusatus
         |     |           `--Stereum
         |     |                |--S. armeniacum
         |     |                |--S. hirsutum
         |     |                `--S. subpileatum
         |     `--+--+--+--Heterobasidion annosum
         |        |  |  `--Bondarzewia
         |        |  |       |--B. berkleyi
         |        |  |       `--B. montana
         |        |  `--+--‘Aleurodiscus’ scutellatus
         |        |     `--+--+--Auriscalpium vulgare
         |        |        |  `--Gloiodon strigosus
         |        |        `--+--+--Laxitextum bicolor
         |        |           |  `--+--Cymatoderma caperatum
         |        |           |     `--Dentipellis separans
         |        |           `--+--Creolophus cirrhatus
         |        |              `--Hericium
         |        |                   |--H. coralloides
         |        |                   |--H. erinaceum
         |        |                   `--H. ramosum
         |        `--+--+--Polyporoletus sublividus
         |           |  `--Albatrellus
         |           |       |--A. fletti
         |           |       `--A. skamanius
         |           `--+--+--+--Echinodontium tinctorium
         |              |  |  `--Laurilia sulcata
         |              |  `--Amylostereum
         |              |       |--A. areolatum
         |              |       |--A. chailettii
         |              |       `--A. laevigatum
         |              `--+--Russulales
         |                 `--+--Amphinema byssoides
         |                    `--+--+--Dichostereum pallescens
         |                       |  `--Vararia insolita
         |                       `--+--Peniophora nuda
         |                          `--+--Coronicium alboglaucum
         |                             `--+--+--Asterostroma andinum
         |                                |  `--Trechispora farinacea
         |                                `--Scytinostroma
         |                                     |--S. alutum
         |                                     `--S. portentosum
         `--+--Polyporaceae
            `--+--+--Neolentinus dactyloides
               |  `--+--Heliocybe sulcata
               |     `--Gloeophyllum [incl. Stiptophyllum Ryvarden 1973]
               |          |--G. erubescens (Berkeley) Popoff 2003 (see below for synonymy)
               |          |--G. sepiarium
               |          `--G. striatum
               `--+--+--‘Pseudotomentella’ ochracea
                  |  `--+--+--Pseudotomentella
                  |     |  |    |--P. mucidula
                  |     |  |    `--P. nigra
                  |     |  `--+--Phellodon tomentosus
                  |     |     `--Bankera fuligineoalba
                  |     `--+--+--Sarcodon imbricatus
                  |        |  `--Hydnellum
                  |        `--+--Thelephora
                  |           |    |--T. muscigena Persoon 1801 (see below for synonymy)
                  |           |    |--T. palmata
                  |           |    `--T. vialis
                  |           `--Tomentella
                  |                |--T. coerulea
                  |                `--+--T. ferruginea
                  |                   `--T. stuposa
                  `--+--+--Galzinia incrustans
                     |  `--+--Vuilleminia comedens
                     |     `--+--Punctularia strigoso-zonata
                     |        `--Dendrocorticium
                     |             |--D. polygonioides
                     |             `--D. roseocarenum
                     `--+--Jaapia argillacea
                        `--+--Boletales
                           `--+--+--Plicaturopsis crispa
                              |  `--+--+--Radulomyces molaris
                              |     |  `--+--Deflexula subsimplex
                              |     |     `--Stephanospora caroticolor
                              |     `--Athelia
                              |          |  i. s.: A. bombacina
                              |          |--A. fibulata
                              |          `--+--A. arachnoidea
                              |             `--‘Hyphoderma’ praetermissum
                              `--+--+--Agaricales
                                 |  `--+--‘Clitocybe’ clavipes
                                 |     `--+--Hohenbuehelia tristis
                                 |        `--Pleurotus
                                 `--+--+--Hygrocybe
                                    |  |    |--H. citrinopallida
                                    |  |    `--H. conica
                                    |  `--+--Humidicutis marginata
                                    |     `--+--Chrysomphalina
                                    |        |    |--C. chrysophylla
                                    |        |    `--C. grossula
                                    |        `--Hygrophorus
                                    |             |--H. bakerensis
                                    |             `--H. sordidus
                                    `--+--+--‘Clitocybe’ lateritia
                                       |  `--+--Caulorhiza hygrophoroides
                                       |     `--Conchomyces bursaeformis
                                       `--+--Resupinatus
                                          |    |--R. trichotis
                                          |    `--+--R. alboniger
                                          |       `--R. dealbatus
                                          `--+--Lentaria albovinacea
                                             `--+--*Omphalina pyxidata
                                                |--Lichenomphalina
                                                `--Arrhenia
                                                     |--*A. auriscalpium (Fries) Fries 1849 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     |--A. acerosa (Fries) Kühner 1980 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     |    |--A. a. var. acerosa (see below for synonymy)
                                                     |    `--A. a. var. tenella (Kühner) Aronsen 1992 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     |--A. lobata (Persoon: Fries) Kühner ex Redhead 1984 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     |--A. retiruga (Bulliard: Fries) Redhead 1984 (see below for synonymy)
                                                     `--A. spathulata (Fries) Redhead 1984 (see below for synonymy)

Arrhenia acerosa (Fries) Kühner 1980 [=Agaricus acerosus Fries 1821]

Arrhenia acerosa (Fries) Kühner 1980 var. acerosa [incl. Agaricus glaucus Batsch 1786, Ar. glauca (Batsch) Bon & Courtecuisse 1987, Pleurotellus acerosus f. latisporus Favre 1955, Ar. latispora (Favre) Bon & Courtecuisse 1987]

Arrhenia acerosa var. tenella (Kühner) Aronsen 1992 [=Pleurotellus acerosus var. tenellus Kühner 1954]

Arrhenia auriscalpium (Fries) Fries 1849 [=Cantharellus auriscalpium Fries 1828; incl. Cyphella cochlearis Bresadola 1903, C. cochlearis var. auriformis Bresadola 1903]

Arrhenia lobata (Persoon: Fries) Kühner ex Redhead 1984 [=Merulius lobatus Persoon 1801, Cantharellus lobatus (Persoon) Fries 1823, Leptoglossum lobatum (Persoon: Fries) Ricken 1910]

Arrhenia retiruga (Bulliard: Fries) Redhead 1984 [=Helvella retiruga Bulliard 1791, Cantharellus retirugus (Bulliard) Fries 1823, Leptoglossum retirugum (Bulliard: Fries) Ricken 1910]

Arrhenia spathulata (Fries) Redhead 1984 [=Cantharellus spathulatus Fries 1828; incl. Leptoglossum muscigenum var. azonum Cout. 1932, Dictyolus lagunae Lázaro Ibiza 1902, Cantharellus lagunae (Lázaro Ibiza) Saccardo & Saccardo 1905, Agaricus muscigenus Bulliard 1786, Ca. muscigenum (Bulliard) Fries 1823, Leptoglossum muscigenum Bulliard: Karsten 1879, Cyphella cochlearis var. subsessilis Bresadola 1903]

Gloeophyllum erubescens (Berkeley) Popoff 2003 [=Daedalea erubescens Berkeley 1840, *Stiptophyllum erubescens (Berkeley) Ryvarden 1973, Xerotinus erubescens (Berkeley) Wright & Deschamps 1977]

Thelephora muscigena Persoon 1801 [=Arrhenia muscigena (Persoon) Quélet 1888]

* Type species of generic name indicated

References

General References and external links

  • Homobasidiomycetes at the Tree of Life Web Project
  • Overview of the Basidiomycota from Aarhus University, Denmark
  • Binder, M., & D. S. Hibbett. 2002. Higher-level phylogenetic relationships of homobasidiomycetes (mushroom-forming fungi) inferred from four rDNA regions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22 (1): 76-90.
  • Hibbett, D. S., & M. Binder. 2002. Evolution of complex fruiting-body morphologies in homobasidiomycetes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269: 1963-1969.
  • Smith, M., Bruhn, J., and Anderson, J. 1992. The fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms. Nature 356:428-431.
  • Evolution & Morphology in the Homobasidiomycetes

Dendrogram References

Aime, M. C., T. W. Henkel & L. Ryvarden. 2003. Studies in neotropical polypores 15: New and interesting species from Guyana. Mycologia 95 (4): 614-619.

Barrasa, J. M., & V. J. Rico. 2003. The non-omphalinoid species of Arrhenia in the Iberian Peninsula. Mycologia 95 (4): 700-713.

Binder, M., & A. Bresinsky. 2002. Derivation of a polymorphic lineage of Gasteromycetes from boletoid ancestors. Mycologia 94 (1): 85-98.

Binder, M., & D. S. Hibbett. 2002. Higher-level phylogenetic relationships of homobasidiomycetes (mushroom-forming fungi) inferred from four rDNA regions. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22 (1): 76-90.

Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203-266.

Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

Hibbett, D. S., & M. Binder. 2002. Evolution of complex fruiting-body morphologies in homobasidiomycetes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269: 1963-1969.

Hibbett, D. S., M. Binder & Z. Wang. 2003. Another fossil agaric from Dominican amber. Mycologia 95 (4): 685-687.

James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818-822.

Krüger, D., M. Binder, M. Fischer & H. Kreisel. 2001. The Lycoperdales. A molecular approach to the systematics of some gasteroid mushrooms. Mycologia 93 (5): 947-957.

Lee, D. L. 2002. Life cycles. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 61-72. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

Miller, S. L., T. M. McClean, J. F. Walker & B. Buyck. 2001. A molecular phylogeny of the Russulales including agaricoid, gasteroid and pleurotoid taxa. Mycologia 93 (2): 344-354.

Mostert, L., P. W. Crous, J. Z. Groenewald, W. Gams & R. C. Summerbell. 2003. Togninia (Calosphaeriales) is confirmed as teleomorph of Phaeoacremonium by means of morphology, sexual compatibility and DNA phylogeny. Mycologia 95 (4): 646-659.

Poinar, G. O., Jr., & A. E. Brown. 2003. A non-gilled hymenomycete in Cretaceous amber. Mycological Research 107 (6): 763-768.

Popoff, O. F. 2003. Notes on Daedalea erubescens, Hexagonia decipiens and the Phaeotrametaceae. Mycotaxon 87: 103-108.

Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1-248.

Yamanaka, T. 2003. The effect of pH on the growth of saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal ammonia fungi in vitro. Mycologia 95 (4): 584-589.

Credits

Phylogeny and References: Christopher 22:16, 3 October 2008 (PDT)

Introduction and general references Wikipedia - "Homobasidiomycetes"; adapted to Palaeso org MAK061005

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