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The Lophotrochozoa ("crest-bearing animals") are a diverse group that were only recently discovered through (if indeed they are a genuine clade, as is being considered increasingly the dominant view, rather than an artifact of the analysis). They include two of the most successful animal phyla, the and . The former includes animals such as , , and , and the latter comprises the segmented worms, such as and . These two groups have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of larvae, but the annelids were considered closer to the , because they are both segmented. Now this is generally considered , owing to many morphological and genetic differences between the two phyla.
The name "Lophotrochozoa" combines the two taxon names (which feed via a fringe of hollow tentacles, a ) and (which have a unique larval stage, the trochophore lava). Lophophorata traditionally includes the , and , but recent authors have not regarded the Bryozoa as closely related to the other two, and hence Lophophorata as polyphyletic. Trochozoa includes the Annelida, Mollusca and Sipuncula. Also within the Lophotrochozoa are the (ribbon worms) and .
Despite Lophotrochozoa only being established in 1995, a considerable degree of confusion already exists about the name's application. The issue has arisen because the original paper recognising Lophotrochozoa (Halanych et al., 1995) only included members of the and in its analysis, separating them from and . Since then, other taxa (primarily the and ) have been suggested as being closer to Halanych et al.'s "Lophotrochozoa" than Ecdysozoa or Deuterostomia, but lying outside the clade formed by Eutrochozoa + Brachiozoa. Authors have differed on whether or not the name "Lophotrochozoa" should be extended to include those taxa. Some authors have subsumed all under Lophotrochozoa, while others have restricted Lophotrochozoa to the phyla originally covered, and used the name (indicating the protostome phyla with spiralian embryo development) for the larger clade of Lophotrochozoa + Platyzoa. The position of Bryozoa remains extremely contentious - Cavalier-Smith (1998) suggested on morphological grounds that it was the sister to Lophotrochozoa sensu stricto (suggesting the name for Lophotrochozoa sensu stricto and for Trochozoa + Bryozoa), but Giribet, Distel et al. (2000) in a combined morphological/molecular analysis found that Bryozoa fell outside the clade Lophotrochozoa + Ecdysozoa.
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