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Jump to: ,

Malvaceae, or the mallow family, is a family of containing a number of genera, generally with five showy and five green and numerous stamens that are fused at the base and form a tube around the pistil. Most species are herbs or shrubs but some species are trees. There are over 100 genera with close to 1,500 species in the family depending on the classification of some of the genera. Most species have hairs and mucus like sap. The best recognized genera include , , , , , , plus others that are grown as garden plants over many regions of the world. A number are pest species in , including and plus others that are garden escapes. Cotton (4 species of ), kenaf () and okra () are important agricultural crops.

There are two main views on the circumscription of the family. One view takes the traditionally narrow view of the family, Malvaceae . The system takes a broader circumscription on the basis of molecular phylogenies that show that while Malvaceae s.s. is , several closely related families of order are not monophyletic. This definition of the family unites the core of the , including , Malvaceae s.s., and , into the wider Malvaceae sensu lato.

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That Malvaceae s.s. comprise a monophyletic group has been confirmed by recent molecular phylogenies. It is a homogeneous taxon, so homogeneous that the category is not applicable, Malvaceae s.s. is only subdivided in .

The family most closely related to Malvaceae s.s. is Bombacaceae, and the two are separated primarily on the basis of pollen characters (smooth or rugose in Bombacaceae, spiny in Malvaceae). Malvaceae s.s. also tend to be herbs or shrubs, whereas Bombacaceae are usually trees. Molecular phylogenies have demonstrated that Bombacaceae is with respect to Malvaceae s.s.

It has been recognised by most compilers of high-level classifications, including:

  • (1824-1price comparison viagra cialis levitra)
  • & (1862-1883) (except for Bombacaceae, considered tribe Bombaceae in Malvaceae)
  • (1883)
  • in & (1895): Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien III. 6 updated by in (1964): Adolf Engler's Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 12th edition, II. Band.
  • (1901-1908)
  • (1926-1934)
  • (1968, 1981)
  • (1986)
  • (1966, 1980)
  • (1975)

Thus forming a solid consensus that was achieved mainly on grounds.

A different approach was taken by Edlin (1935), who restricted Malvaceae even further by transferring the genera with capsular fruits, including Gossypium and Hibiscus, into a more broadly defined Bombacaceae.

Malvaceae sensu stricto as traditionally defined consists of about 111-119 genera, totalling about 1,500 species. This includes the mallows, cotton plants, okra, hibiscus, and hollyhocks.

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Source: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

  • Medik.
  • Mill.
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  • Krapov.
  • L.
  • (Hochr.) Krapov., Fryxell & D.M.Bates
  • D.M.Bates
  • L.
  • Alef.
  • C.Presl
  • Cav.
  • (DC.) Kunth
  • Klotzsch
  • Alef.
  • Hochr.
  • Kunth
  • (Rose) D.M.Bates
  • (K.Schum.) Hassl.
  • Fryxell
  • Fryxell
  • Hassl.
  • Zoll. & Moritzi
  • Hochr.
  • Nutt.
  • Krapov.
  • Krapov.
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  • Ulbr.
  • Cav.
  • Ulbr.
  • (K.Schum.) Kearney
  • Cav.
  • Wight & Arn.
  • Fryxell
  • Benth.
  • Krapov.
  • Greene
  • Rose & Standl.
  • Mattei
  • D.M.Bates
  • Kunth
  • Nees
  • Skovst. ex J.B.Hutch.
  • L.
  • Alef.
  • Schltdl.
  • Hochr.
  • Medik.
  • Rock
  • L.
  • Krapov.
  • A.Cunn.
  • A.Gray
  • F.Muell.
  • Hochr.
  • Hochr.
  • Thwaites
  • Hochr.
  • D.M.Bates
  • Willd.
  • Lewton
  • C.Presl
  • Fryxell
  • Roxb.
  • (DC.) Rchb.
  • L.
  • Hook.
  • Fosberg
  • Mart.
  • Hochr.
  • L.
  • Greene
  • L.
  • L.
  • A.Gray
  • Fabr.
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  • Hochr.
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  • Desv.
  • J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
  • R.E.Fr.
  • Bullock
  • Fryxell
  • Rose & Baker f.
  • Fryxell
  • Cav.
  • L.
  • A.Gray
  • A.St.-Hil.
  • Gurke
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  • Hochr.
  • Medik.

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In the broader APG circumscription, the Malvaceae are also a monophyletic group but take in a much larger number of genera. Because molecular phylogenies have shown that Bombacaceae, Tiliaceae, and Sterculiaceae as traditionally defined are closely related to Malvaceae s.s. but are not monophyletic groups, Malvaceae have been expanded to include these families. This expanded definition has been adopted by numerous researchers on the Malvales (e.g., Baum et al. 2004, Perveen et al. 2004, Tate et al. 2005).

Whether a consensus in favor of a broad or narrow circumscription of Malvaceae will be adopted, or something in between, remains to be seen. The broad circumscription of Malvaceae has been adopted in textbooks on plant systematics (Judd et al. 1999), in a comprehensive treatment of vascular plant families and genera, the , by Bayer & Kubitzki (2003), and in a treatment of Neotropical plant families by Maas & Westra (2005). The most recent version of the takes an intermediate approach in combining Bombacaceae and Sterculiaceae under Malvaceae, but retaining (containing elements of the traditional Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae) and a considerably restricted Tiliaceae as separate families.

Malvaceae sensu APG is a family of about 250 genera; it thus also includes , , , , (chocolate), , etc. There are nine subfamilies (Bayer et al.;; 1999, Bayer & Kubitzki 2003):

  • , traditionally in
  • , traditionally in
  • , traditionally in
  • , traditionally in
  • , traditionally in
  • , traditionally in (tribe Helictereae) and (tribe Durioneae)
  • , traditionally Malvaceae sensu stricto
  • , traditionally in
  • , traditionally in
Selected genera
  • - Okra
  • - Abutilon
  • – Baobab traditionally in family
  • - Hollyhock
  • - Marsh mallow
  • - Booyong - traditionally in family
  • – Silk-cotton tree traditionally in family
  • – Bottletree traditionally in family
  • - Poppy mallow
  • – Kapok traditionally in family
  • – Mexican Hand Tree traditionally in family
  • - Kola nut traditionally in family
  • - Brown Kurrajong traditionally in family
  • - Jute traditionally in family
  • – Durian traditionally in family
  • – Flannelbush traditionally in family
  • – Gaya
  • - Cotton plant
  • - Hibiscus
  • – Lacebark
  • - Saltmarsh mallow
  • - Tree mallow or Rose mallow
  • - Mallow
  • - Turk's cap mallow
  • – Balsa traditionally in family
  • - Greek mallow
  • - Globemallow
  • - traditionally in family
  • - Cacao traditionally in family
  • – Linden, traditionally in family

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The earliest known fossils of Malvaceae are from the Upper . Among the living taxa, the modern genus has a fossil record extending back at least to the , with pollen assigned to this genus from the . Coverage of many fossil Malvaceae can be found at .

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   |--Sidalcea malviflora
   |--Anoda cristata
   |--Lawrencia spicata
   |    |--L. arborea
   |    |--L. plebeja
   |    `--L. trimensis
   |    |--A. hirsuta
   |    `--A. officinalis
   |    |--U. americana [incl. U. reticulata]
   |    `--U. lobata
   |    |--A. biennis
   |    `--A. rosea
   |    |--A. asiaticum
   |    |--A. avicennae [=Sida abutilon]
   |    |--A. exonemum
   |    |--A. graveolens
   |    |--A. indicum
   |    |--A. otocarpum
   |    |--A. oxycarpum
   |    `--A. theophrasti
   |    |--M. aegyptia
   |    |--M. caroliniana
   |    |--M. cretica
   |    |--M. moschata
   |    |--M. neglecta
   |    |--M. parviflora
   |    |--M. rotundifolia
   |    |--M. sylvestris Linnaeus 1753
   |    `--M. verticillata
   |    |  i. s.: H. coatsii
   |    |         H. esculentus
   |    |         H. floccosus
   |    |         H. manihot
   |    |         H. rosa-sinensis
   |    |         H. sabdariffa
   |    |         H. sturtii
   |    |         H. tiliaceus [=Paritium tiliaceum]
   |    |         H. trionum
   |    `--H. sect. Furcaria
   |         |--H. aculeatus [incl. H. furcatus]
   |         `--H. radiatus Cavanilles 1787
   |    |--G. acuminatum
   |    |--G. arboreum
   |    |--G. australe
   |    |--G. barbadense
   |    |--G. herbaceum
   |    |--G. hirsutum
   |    |    |--G. h. var. hirsutum
   |    |    `--G. h. var. punctatum
   |    |--G. lobatum
   |    |--G. obtusifolium
   |    |--G. raimondii
   |    |--G. religiosum
   |    |--G. robinsonii
   |    |--G. thurberi
   |    `--G. tomentosum
   |    |--S. acuta
   |    |--S. atrovirens
   |    |--S. calyxhymenia
   |    |--S. carpinifolia
   |    |--S. chrysocalyx
   |    |--S. cordifolia [incl. S. africana, S. altheifolia]
   |    |--S. echinocarpa
   |    |--S. fibulifera
   |    |--S. filiformis
   |    |--S. hookeriana
   |    |--S. humilis
   |    |--S. juncea
   |    |--S. kingii
   |    |--S. linifolia [incl. S. linearifolia]
   |    |--S. periplocifolia [=Abutilon periplocifolium]
   |    |--S. rhombifolia
   |    |--S. spinosa
   |    |--S. stipulata [incl. S. prostrata]
   |    `--S. urens
   |    |--P. betulinus
   |    |--P. chathamicus
   |    |--P. × cymosus [P. betulinus × P. divaricatus]
   |    |--P. divaricatus
   |    |--P. lyallii
   |    `--P. regius
        |--G. allanii
        |--G. lyallii
        `--G. ribifolia

* Type species of generic name indicated

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Malvaceae sensu lato:

  • , includes much recent taxonomic discussion and a full list of about 250 genera; also numerous photos

Malvaceae sensu stricto:

  • in The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval.
  • – miscellaneous photographs at University of Hawaii Botany site.
  • list of genera


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