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  • :
  • Subkingdom:
  • Subkingdom:
   `== (paraphyletic?)
      `== (paraphyletic?)
            `== (paraphyletic?)
               |  |--
               |  `--

Note that the phylogeny given below differs in some details from that given on the main page for . It is almost universally agreed that the presence of tissue systems in , and indicates that they form a clade to the exclusion of the less organised sponges (). These days this clade is generally known as , but in older textbooks you may find this clade referred to as , with sponges excluded as .

Within , have often been regarded as closer to than (as shown on the ) due to the former two having an anterior-posterior body axis and muscle blocks (old classificatory schemes united Cnidaria and Ctenophora as - however, this was based solely on characters of and ). In contrast, molecular phylogenies suggest that Ctenophora is further away from Bilateria (as shown below), which would require shared characters between the two to be . While this may seem unlikely at first glance, has suggested that Ctenophora may be derived from sessile ancestors, making convergence with Bilateria more likely.

Another notable point of contention is the position of (). This simple animal has been thought to be morphologically intermediate between Porifera and Eumetazoa (). However, Cavalier-Smith and Chao (2003) found Trichoplax to be nested within in their molecular phylogeny, and it has been suggested that Trichoplax is derived from a cnidarian larva.

Animalia (see below for synonymy)
   |-- SCM06
   `--+--Trichoplax C-SC03 [Placozoa SCM06]
      |    `--T. adhaerens C-SC03
      `--+-- DH08
         `--+-- DH08
            `--+-- DH08
               `--Hyalospongiae C-S98
                    |  i. s.:  C-SC03
                    |-- DH08
                    `--Hexactinellida [Triaxonia] SCM06
                         |--Oopsacas minuta C-SC03
                         |--Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni C0SC03
                         |--Semperella schulzei F79
                         `--Hyalonema [Hyalonematidae] F79
                              |--H. hozawai F79
                              |--H. molle Schulze 1904 BJ06
                              |--H. proximum Schulze 1904 BJ06
                              |--H. simile Schulze 1904 BJ06
                              `--H. valdiviae Schulze 1904 BJ06

Animalia incertae sedis:

 Namapoikia Wood, Grotzinger & Dickson 2002 WGD02
   `--*N. rietoogensis Wood, Grotzinger & Dickson 2002 WGD02
 Yaworipora WGD02
 Rosellatana WGD02
 Coleoloides typicalis Walcott 1890 [incl. C. trigeminatus Missarzhevsky in Rozanov et al. 1969] KB09
 Purella Missarzhevsky 1974 [Purellidae] P02
   `--*P. cristata Missarzhevsky 1974 P02 [incl. P. antiqua (Abaimova 1976) KB09]
 Albinaria coerulea NS03
 Ventogyrus IF02
 Podolimirus IF02
 Swartpuntia IF02
 Calyptrina IF02
 Kimberella IF02
 Diagramma labiosum LOL03
 Neotricula aperta LO03
 Indoplanorbis exustus LO03
 Radix peregra LO03
 Uroteuthis noctiluca NN03
 Rondeletiola minor NN03
 Sepiolina nipponensis NN03
 Cleisopus gloriamaris NN03
 Nowakia WL04
   |--N. acuaria NJ83
   |--N. barrandei Boucek & Prantl 1959 WL04
   `--N. otomari D02
 Ainiktozoon WB85
 Amiella ornata Walcott 1911 WB85
 Hirnantia Lamont 1935 RZJ04
 Foliomena Havlicek 1952 RZJ04
 Caveasphaera costata X04
 Megaclonophycus onustus X04
 Sinocyclocyclicus guizhouensis X04
 Spiralicellula bulbifera X04
 Trimerotropis citrina D37
 Eurytholia Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001 SHC01
   |--*E. prattensis Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001 SHC01
   `--E. elibata Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001 SHC01
 Dimorphoconus granulatus Donovan & Paul 1985 SHC01
 Dinomischus isolatus CM98
 Eldonia ludwigi CM98
 Jennaria pulchra Rieger 1991 ZHT01
 Amauroceras ferrugineum D01
 Declinognathodus noduliferus (Ellison & Graves 1941) HM04
 Pseudomytiloides dubius BL78
 Asbestopluma Norman 1882 [Cladorhizidae] L01
   `--A. lycopodium (Levinsen 1886) L01
 Acarnidae BJ06
   |--Acarnus LGJ03
   |--Cornulum dubium Hentschel 1912 BJ06
   |--Damiria simplex Keller 1891 [incl. D. simplex fistulata Hentschel 1912] BJ06
   `--Zyzzya FV09
        |--Z. criceta Schoenberg 2000 FV09
        `--Z. fuliginosa (Carter 1879) FV09
 Actinostromaria HS02
 Parastromatopora HS02
 Gilletia HS02
 Sestromella HS02
 Chaetetopsis HS02
 Ellipsactinia HS02
 Sphaeractinia HS02
 Doryderma HS02
 Elasmoiera HS02
 Crambeidae FV09
   |--*Crambe crambe F79
   `--Monanchora unguiculata (Dendy 1922) FV09
 Ceratoporella nicolsoni F79
 Disyringa dissimilis F79
 Poterion neptuni F79
 Callyspongiidae BJ06
   |--Siphonochalina BJ06
   |    |--S. fascigera Hentschel 1912 BJ06
   |    `--S. siphonella Lévi 1965 BJ06
   `--Callyspongia F79
        |--C. aerizusa Desqueyroux-Faúndez 1984 FV09
        |--C. plicifera C96
        `--C. vaginalis F79
 Holopsamma turbo Carter 1885 [=Sigmatella turbo] T72
 Psammoclemma Marshall 1880 [incl. Psammopemma Marshall 1880; Chondropsidae] BJ06
   |--‘Psammopemma’ densum Marshall 1881 [incl. Holopsamma laevis Carter 1885] T72
   |--‘Psammopemma’ durissimum BJ06
   |    |--P. d. durissimum BJ06
   |    `--P. d. grisea Hentschel 1912 BJ06
   `--‘Psammopemma’ porosum Polejaff 1884 T72
 Ochridaspongia SV86
 Microcordyla asteriae BK77
 Irciniidae FV09
   |--Sarcotragus FV09
   `--Ircinia Nardo 1833 [incl. Hircinia Nardo 1834] BJ06
        |--‘Hircinia’ aruensis Hentschel 1912 BJ06
        |--I. felix Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864 D84
        |--‘Hircinia’ pinna Hentschel 1912 BJ06
        |--‘Hircinia’ spiculosa Hentschel 1912 BJ06
        `--I. strobilina Lamarck 1816 D84
 Stematumenia MK83
   |--S. foetida MK83
   |--S. strobilina MK83
   `--S. variabilis MK83
 Astrosclera willeyana VV77
 Hemectyon ferox MH96
 Vauxia gracilenta CM98
 Choia carteri CM98
 Pirania muricata CM98
 Eiffelia globosa CM98
 Dictyonellidae FV09
   |--Acanthella euctimena Hentschel 1912 BJ06
   `--Stylissa FV09
        |--S. carteri (Dendy 1889) FV09
        `--S. massa (Carter 1887) FV09
 Speophilosoma T07
   |--S. koyama T07
   `--S. tottoriense T07
 Lycocerus suturellus T07
 Araragi enthea T07
 Buergeria buergeri T07
 Parechthistatus gibber T07
 Parapodisma setouchiensis T07
 Arcuphantes T07
   |--A. hibanus T07
   |--A. iharai T07
   |--A. saitoi T07
   `--A. tsurusakii T07
 ‘Leptophyllus’ Quenstedt 1876 non Hope 1842 FT93
 Periphragella [Euretidae] BJ06
   `--P. antarctica Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
 Rossellidae BJ06
   |--Schaudinnia rosea (Fristedt 1887) [incl. S. arctica Schulze 1900] BJ06
   |--*Trichasterina borealis Schulze 1900 BJ06
   `--Caulophacus BJ06
        |--C. (Caulodiscus) brandti Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
        |--C. valdiviae Schulze 1904 BJ06
        `--C. (*Oxydiscus) weddelli Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
 Aplysina [Aplysinidae] BJ06
   `--A. mollis BJ06
        |--A. m. mollis BJ06
        `--A. m. aruensis Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 Desmacellidae BJ06
   |--Tylodesma microstrongyla Hentschel 1912 BJ06
   `--Biemna BJ06
        |--B. aruensis Hentschel 1912 BJ06
        |--B. fortis (Topsent 1897) FV09
        |--B. humilis Thiele 1903 BJ06
        |--B. megalosigma Hentschel 1912 BJ06
        |    |--B. m. megalosigma BJ06
        |    `--B. m. liposphaera Hentschel 1912 BJ06
        `--B. truncata Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 Terpios fugax Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864 BJ06
 Cerbaris Topsent 1898 [incl. Rhabdoploca Topsent 1904; Bubaridae] BJ06
   `--‘Rhabdoploca’ topsenti Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 Darwinellidae BJ06
   |--Darwinella australiensis Carter 1885 BJ06
   `--Dendrilla BJ06
        |--D. lacunosa Hentschel 1912 BJ06
        |--D. lendenfeldi Hentschel 1912 BJ06
        `--D. mertoni Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 Monorhaphis [Monorhaphididae] BJ06
   `--*M. chuni Schulze 1904 [incl. M. dives Schulze 1904] BJ06
 Pachastrellidae BJ06
   |--Pachastrella BJ06
   |    |--P. chuni von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
   |    `--P. tenuipilosa von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
   `--Thenea BJ06
        |--T. megaspina von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
        |--T. multiformis von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
        |--T. pendula von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
        `--T. valdiviae von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
 Theonellidae BJ06
   |--Discodermia claviformis Kieschnick 1896 (n. d.) BJ06
   `--Theonella BJ06
        |--T. conica (Kieschnick 1896) [=Discodermia conica] BJ06
        |--T. incerta Thiele 1900 BJ06
        |--T. lacerata von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
        `--T. swinhoei Gray 1868 FV09
 Hymedesmiidae BJ06
   |--Hymedesmia mertoni Hentschel 1912 BJ06
   `--Hamigera [incl. Amoibodictya] BJ06
        `--*H. hamigera [incl. *Amoibodictya forsteri Zahn, Müller & Müller 1977] BJ06
 Desmanthus [incl. Lophacanthus non Stock 1880; Desmanthidae] BJ06
   |--D. rhabdophorus (Hentschel 1912) [=*Lophacanthus rhabdophorus] BJ06
   `--D. topsenti Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 Placospongia [Placospongiidae] BJ06
   |--P. melobesioides Gray 1867 FV09
   `--P. mixta Thiele 1900 BJ06
 Desmoxyidae FV09
   |--Dendropsis mixta Hentschel 1912 BJ06
   |--Higginsia mixta Hentschel 1912 FV09
   `--Myrmekioderma granulatum (Esper 1794) FV09
 Scleritoderma [Scleritodermatidae] BJ06
   `--S. nodosum Thiele 1900 BJ06
 Platylistrum [Pheronematidae] BJ06
   `--*P. platessa Schulze 1904 BJ06
 Holascus [Euplectellidae] BJ06
   `--H. pseudostellatus Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
 Timea [Timeidae] BJ06
   `--T. tetractis Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 Sarostegia [incl. Ramella; Farreidae] BJ06
   `--S. occulata Topsent 1904 [incl. *Ramella tubulosa Schulze 1904] BJ06
 Paracharnia dengyingensis XS05
 Sinotubulites baimatuoensis XS05
 Cloudina hartmannae XS05
 Pararenicola Wang 1982 [incl. Paleorhynchus Wang 1982] SWZ86
   `--*P. huaiyuanensis Wang 1982 (see below for synonymy) SWZ86
 Protoarenicola Wang 1982 SWZ86
   `--*P. baiguashanensis Wang 1982 SWZ86
 Gunnarites antarcticus CT05
 *Aaptos aaptos HS01
 Coleolus Hall 1876 [Coleoloidae] YH85
   |--*C. tenuistriatus YH85
   |--C. aciculatum Hall 1879 [=Dentalium aciculatum] YH85
   |--C. clintonensis [=Orthoceras (Coleolus) clintonensis] P68
   `--C. curvatus Kindle 1912 YH85
 Styliolina fissurella YH85
 Volborthellida [Agmata, Protochoanites, Volborthellacea, Volborthellidea] PY84
   |--Vologdinella Balashov 1962 [Vologdinellidae] T64
   |    `--*V. antiqua (Vologdin 1930) [=Orthoceras antiquus] T64
   |--Volborthella Schmidt 1888 [=Volborthelia (l. c.); Paleonavtili, Volborthellidae] T64
   |    |--*V. tenuis Schmidt 1888 T64
   |    `--V. conica T64
   `--Salterella Billings 1861 [Salterellidae] T64
        |--*S. rugosa Billings 1861 T64
        `--S. conulata T64
 Ptychoderma australiensis H09
 Limnorea Goldfuss 1826 BR05
 Thamnopora pulchra Y92
 Cladopora cylindrocellulaia Y92
 Liponissus saurarorum K92
 Pseudoalabidocarpus [Labidocarpidae] K06
   `--P. secus K06
 Ancodon S61
   |--A. gorringei S61
   `--A. parvus S61
 Megacyllene robiniae EBS98
 Shelbyoceras Ulrich & Foerste 1930 T64
   |--*S. robustum Ulrich & Foerste 1930 T64
   |--S. bessemerense Ulrich, Foerste & Miller 1943 P68
   |--S. buttsi Ulrich, Foerste & Miller 1943 P68
   `--S. unguliforme Ulrich, Foerste & Mller 1943 P68
 Conigalea Ivanov 1995 [Actinaculata, Conigaleidae, Conigaleoida, Marinaculata] I95
   `--*C. otschevi Ivanov 1995 I95
 Salpa B26
   |--S. fusiformis B26
   |--S. tilesii B26
   `--S. zonaria B26
 Branchiura sowerbyi KA01
 Stylodrilus heringianus KA01
 Basiliella wusungensis D82
 Taimyrosphinctes excentricus SY85
 Chetaites sibiricus SY85
 Hectoceras kochi SY85
 Riasamites riasanensis SY85
 Subcraspedites spasskensis SY85
 Aulacosphinctes reedi SY85
 Surites analogus SY85
 Substeuroceras stantoni SY85
 Rhabderemia [Rhabderemiidae] FV09
   `--R. indica Dendy 1905 FV09
 Suberea [Aplysinellidae] FV09
 Reniochalina stalagmitis Lendenfeld 1888 FV09
 Lelapia australis T10

Animalia [Agnotozoa, Coelenterata, Diploblastica, Enterozoa, Eumetazoa, Gelatinosa, Metazoa, Parazoa, Porifera, Radiata, Spongiaria, Vendobionta]

*Pararenicola huaiyuanensis Wang 1982 [incl. Paleorhynchus anhuiensis Wang 1982, Ruedemannella minuta Wang 1982, Paleolina tortuosa Wang 1982] SWZ86

* Type species of generic name indicated

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[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1-159.

[BJ06] Barnich, R., & D. Janussen. 2006. Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, Nr. 86. Type catalogue of the Porifera in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 127-144.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1-509.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[BL78] Breimer, A., & N. G. Lane. 1978. Ecology and paleoecology. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea (R. C. Moore & C. Teichert, eds.) vol. 1 pp. T316-T347. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology (4th ed.) The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[C-S98] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. Biological Reviews 73: 203-266.

[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and other Protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 540-563.

[CT05] Clarke, J. A., C. P. Tambussi, J. I. Noriega, G. M. Erickson & R. A. Ketcham. 2005. Definitive fossil evidence for the extant avian radiation in the Cretaceous. Nature 433: 305-308.

[CM98] Conway Morris, S. 1998. The Crucible of Creation. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

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