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Monocotyledons or monocots are one of two major groups of (angiosperms) that are traditionally recognized, or dicots being the other. Monocots have been recognized at various taxonomic ranks, and under various names (see below). The system recognizes a clade called "monocots" but does not assign it to a taxonomic rank.

Monocots comprise the majority of agricultural plants in terms of biomass produced. There are between 50,000 and 60,000 within this group; according to IUCN there are 59,300 species . The largest family in this group (and in the flowering plants as a whole) by number of species are the orchids (family ), with about twenty thousand species. The economically most important family in this group (and in the flowering plants) are the grasses, family (Gramineae). These include all the true grains (, , , etc.), the pasture grasses and the . This family of the true grasses have evolved in another direction, becoming highly specialized for wind pollination. Grasses produce much smaller flowers, which are gathered in highly visible plumes (). Other economically important monocot families are the palm family (), banana family (), ginger family () and the , which includes such ubiquitously used vegetables as and .

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The name Monocotyledoneae is derived from the fact that most members of this group have one , or embryonic leaf, in their . This as opposed to the traditional , which typically have two cotyledons. From a diagnostic point of view the number of cotyledons is neither a particularly handy (as they are only present for a very short period in a plant's life) nor totally reliable character.

Nevertheless, monocots are a distinctive group (Chase, 2004). One of the most noticeable traits is that a monocot's flower is , with the flower parts in threes or in multiples of three. For example, a monocotyledon's flower typically has three, six, or nine petals. Many monocots also have with parallel veins.

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The traditionally listed differences between monocotyledons and dicotyledons are as follows. This is a broad sketch only, not invariably applicable, as there are a number of exceptions. The differences indicated are more true for monocots versus , as per the :

Flowers: In monocots, flowers are trimerous (number of flower parts in a whorl in threes) while in dicots the flowers are or (flower parts are in fours or fives).

Pollen: In monocots, pollen has one or while dicots have three.

Seeds: In monocots, the embryo has one while the embryo of the dicot has two.

Stems: In monocots, in the stem are scattered, in dicots arranged in a ring.

Roots: In monocots, roots are , while in dicots they develop from the .

Leaves: In monocots, the major leaf are parallel, while in dicots they are reticulate.

However, these differences are not hard and fast: some monocots have characteristics more typical of dicots, and vice-versa. This is in part because "dicots" are a group with respect to monocots, and some dicots may be more closely related to monocots than to other dicots. In particular, several early-branching lineages of "dicots" share "monocot" characteristics, suggesting that these are not defining characters of monocots. When monocots are compared to eudicots, the differences are more concrete.

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The monocots are considered to form a group arising early in the history of the . The earliest fossils presumed to be monocot remains date from the period.

Taxonomists have considerable latitude in naming this group, as the monocots are a group above the rank of family. Article 16 of the allows either a or a name formed from the name of an included family.

Historically, the monocotyledons were named:

  • cialis professional in the and the .
  • in the and the
  • class in the and the .
  • subclass in the and the .
  • monocots in the and the .

Each of the systems mentioned above use their own internal taxonomy for the group. The monocotyledons are famous as a group that is extremely stable in its outer borders (it is a well-defined, coherent group), while in its internal taxonomy is extremely unstable (historically no two authoritative systems have agreed with each other on how the monocotyledons are related to each other).

Recent molecular studies have both confirmed the of the monocots and helped elucidate relationships within this group. The system does not assign the monocots to a taxonomic rank, instead recognizing a monocots clade. This system recognizes ten orders of monocots and two families of monocots not yet assigned to any order:

  • clade monocots :
  • family
  • order
  • order
  • order
  • order
  • order
  • order
  • clade :
  • family
  • order
  • order
  • order
  • order

The family , assigned to order Poales in the APG II system, has since been recognized as being misplaced in the monocots, and instead proves to be most closely related to the water lilies, family (Saarela et al., 2007).

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Monocotyledoneae [Acoranae, Alismatidae, Monocotyledones, Triurididae]
   |  i. s.: Clivia
   |         Eriophorum vaginatum
   |         Odyssea
   |         Dendrocalamus
   |         Hosta
   |         Gymnoschoenus sphaerocephalus
   |         Syringodium
   |           |--S. filiforme
   |           `--S. isoetifolium
   |         Posidonia
   |           |--P. oceanica
   |           `--P. sinuosa
   |         Acaciaephyllum
   |         Pennistemon
   |         Caulinities loipopytis
   |--Acorus [Acoraceae, Acorales]
   |    |--A. calamus Linnaeus 1753
   |    `--+--A. gramineus
   |       `--A. tatarinowii
   `--Nartheciidae
        |--
        `--Petrosaviidae
             |--Petrosaviaceae [Petrosaviales, Petrosavianae]
             |    |--Japonolirion osense
             |    `--Petrosavia stellaris Becc. 1871
             `--

* Type species of generic name indicated

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