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A parasite is an organism that derives nutrition from other living organisms, generally in such a way as to cause disadvantage but not death to the victim. The term also usually implies a long-term association, and/or that the "parasite" is smaller than the "". are excluded, even though they would often fall under the coverage of the first definition ( are not regarded as parasites of ).
Parasites are generally divided between , which live within the host, and , which live outside the host. Endoparasites may be further divided according to where exactly they can be found, whether in the , , etc. Ectoparasites may differ between those that are permanently associated with the host (such as ) or those that only approach the host to feed (such as ). The adaptations associated with all these categories can differ significantly. Many parasites, particularly endoparasites, show a reduction or loss of features found in their free-living relatives, and rely on the host for the functions these features previously performed. Many parasites are often very host-specific, and many endoparasites have complicated life-cycles with different stages having different hosts.
Because most parasites are soft-bodied and have restricted habitats, most parasitic have very little fossil record.
A great many different organisms have become parasites varying from to some such as , and it would not be possible to enumerate them all. However, some notable examples are listed below:
: Many bacteria are known for causing diseases, such as (tuberculosis) and (syphilis). Many bacteria and fungi are - that is, they normally live on the host as and only become parasitic if the host has been otherwise compromised.
: "Protozoa" include many parasitic clades such as , and , some members of which are significant disease organisms for humans.
: A number of plants are parasitic, generally on other plants. Plant parasites may be distinguished between such as , which retain their own and only derive some of their nutrition from the host, and such as , that derive their nutrition entirely from the host.
: Notable examples of parasitic fungi are the (intracellular parasites only recently recognised as fungi) and members of (the rusts).
: Among the countless examples of parasitic animals are the , , parasitic such as and , such as many , and such as and . Many and lay eggs within other insects - technically, these insects are , as unlike true parasites the larva usually causes the death of the host.
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