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Taxonomy Phylogeny
                    |  `--Pteridopsida


The Ferns

Early Carboniferous to Recent

Polystichum setiferum; Family Aspidiaceae



The ferns are easily recognised by their beautiful fractally divided fronds. The fronds are spirally arranged, and carry the sporangia (spore cases). The male gametes (sperm cells) have many flagella (tails) and are highly mobile. The gametophytes are complex and multicelluar, so in effect the fern passes through two different existnces during its life cycle.

Ferns have an enormous range of form and structure, ranging small epiphytes with undivided fronds to great tree ferns 20 meters or more in height. The greatest diversity of ferns is in the tropics, and like all spore-bearing plants they prefer moist conditions.

There are about 12,000 recent species [1], and many fossil forms are known.


Depending on the taxonomic schema and Linnaean ranking, ferns are variously designated as Pteridopsida, Pteridophyta, Filices, Filicinophyta, Filicophyta, Filicopsida, Polypodiophyta, Polypodiopsida, Pterophyta, or Pteropsida.

The study of ferns is called pteridology; one who studies ferns is called a pteridologist.

Life Cycle

The following section is from Wikipedia:

A fern is a vascular plant that differs from the more primitive lycophytes in having true leaves (megaphylls), and from the more advanced seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) in lacking seeds. Like all vascular plants, it has a life cycle, often referred to as alternation of generations, characterised by a diploid sporophytic and a haploid gametophytic phase. Unlike the gymnosperms and angiosperms, in ferns the gametophyte is a free-living organism. The life cycle of a typical fern is as follows:

  1. A sporophyte (diploid) phase produces haploid spores by meiosis;
  2. A spore grows by cell division into a gametophyte, which typically consists of a photosynthetic prothallus
  3. The gametophyte produces gametes (often both sperm and eggs on the same prothallus) by mitosis
  4. A mobile, flagellate sperm fertilizes an egg that remains attached to the prothallus
  5. The fertilized egg is now a diploid zygote and grows by mitosis into a sporophyte (the typical "fern" plant).


The following section is from Wikipedia:

Like the sporophytes of seed plants, those of ferns consist of:

  • Stems: Most often an underground creeping rhizome, but sometimes an above-ground creeping stolon (e.g., Polypodiaceae), or an above-ground erect semi-woody trunk (e.g., Cyatheaceae) reaching up to 20 m in a few species (e.g., Cyathea brownii on Norfolk Island and Cyathea medullaris in New Zealand).
  • Leaf: The green, photosynthetic part of the plant. In ferns, it is often referred to as a frond, but this is because of the historical division between people who study ferns and people who study seed plants, rather than because of differences in structure. New leaves typically expand by the unrolling of a tight spiral called a crozier or fiddlehead. This uncurling of the leaf is termed circinate vernation. Leaves are divided into two types:
    • Trophophyll: A leaf that does not produce spores, instead only producing sugars by photosynthesis. Analogous to the typical green leaves of seed plants.
    • Sporophyll: A leaf that produces spores. These leaves are analogous to the scales of pine cones or to stamens and pistil in gymnosperms and angiosperms, respectively. Unlike the seed plants, however, the sporophylls of ferns are typically not very specialized, looking similar to trophophylls and producing sugars by photosynthesis as the trophophylls do.
  • Roots: The underground non-photosynthetic structures that take up water and nutrients from soil. They are always fibrous and are structurally very similar to the roots of seed plants.

The gametophytes of ferns, however, are very different from those of seed plants. They typically consist of:

  • Prothallus: A green, photosynthetic structure that is one cell thick, usually heart- or kidney-shaped, 3-10 mm long and 2-8 mm broad. The thallus produces gametes by means of:
    • Antheridia: Small spherical structures that produce flagellate sperm.
    • Archegonia: A flask-shaped structure that produces a single egg at the bottom, reached by the sperm by swimming down the neck.
  • Rhizoids: root-like structures (not true roots) that consist of single greatly-elongated cells, water and mineral salts are absorbed over the whole structure. Rhizoids anchor the prothallus to the soil.


<==Pteridopsida [Filices, Filicinophyta, Filicopsida, Polypodiopsida, Pterophyta, Pteropsida]
   |  i. s.: Cyatheaceae
   |         Todites
   |         Gleichenites
   |         Marsileaceae
   |           |--Regnellidium
   |           `--Marsilea
   |                |--M. crenata Presl 1825
   |                `--M. mexicana
   |         Aspidiaceae
   |         Salviniaceae
   |           |--Daharia Barale & Ouaja 2002
   |           |    `--*D. tunisiensis Barle & Ouaja 2002
   |           `--Salvinia
   |                |--S. cucullata
   |                |--S. molesta
   |                `--S. natans (Linnaeus) All. 1785 [=Marsilea natans Linnaeus 1753]
   |         Azolla [Azollaceae]
   |           `--A. imbricata (Roxb.) Nakai 1925
   |         Vittariaceae
   |         Lindsaeaceae
   |         Aspleniopsis aplenioides (Holttum) Pichi-Sermolli 1977 (see below for synonymy)
   |         Grammitidaceae
   |         Oleandraceae
   |           |--Oleandra
   |           |    |--O. pistillaris (Sw.) Chr. 1934 (see below for synonymy)
   |           |    `--O. wallichii (Hooker) Presl 1836 (see below for synonymy)
   |           `--Nephrolepis
   |                |--N. biserrata
   |                |--N. cordifolia (Linnaeus) Presl 1836 (see below for synonymy)
   |                `--N. delicatula (Decne.) Pichi-Ser. 1968 (see below for synonymy)
   |         Culcita straminea
   |         Coryphopteris squamipes
   |         Aspleniaceae
   |           |--Asplenium
   |           `--Hymenasplenium
   |                |  i. s.: H. cheilosorum
   |                |         H. obliquissimum
   |                |--H. riparium
   |                `--+--H. hondoense
   |                   `--H. laetum
   |         Trichipteris borinquena
   |         Thelypteridaceae
   |         Ceterach officinarum
   |         Ophioglossaceae
   |           |--Ophioglossum petiolatum Hooker 1823
   |           |--Helminthostachys zeylanica (Linnaeus) Hooker 1840 (see below for synonymy)
   |           `--Botrychium
   |                |--B. daucifolium Wall. ex Hooker & Grev. 1829 (see below for synonymy)
   |                |--B. lanuginosum Wall. ex Hooker & Grev. 1829 (see below for synonymy)
   |                |--B. lunaria (Linnaeus) Sw. 1801 [=Osmunda lunaria Linnaeus 1753]
   |                |--B. multifidum (Gmel.) Rupr. 1859 (see below for synonymy)
   |                `--B. virginicum
   |         Blechnaceae
   |           |--Woodwardia
   |           |    |--W. spinulosa
   |           |    `--W. unigemmata (Makino) Nakai 1925 (see below for synonymy)
   |           `--Blechnum
   |                |--B. falciforme
   |                |--B. orientale Linnaeus 1753
   |                `--B. unilaterale
   |         Parkeriaceae
   |         Platycerium coronarium
   |         Lecanopteris carnosa
   |         Athyriaceae
   |         Woodsiaceae
   |         Davalliaceae
   |         Plagiogyria [Plagiogyriaceae]
   |           |--P. communis Ching 1958
   |           |--P. euphlebia (Kunze) Mett. 1858 [=Lomaria euphlebia Kunze 1848]
   |           `--P. pycnophylla [=Lomaria pycnophylla Kunze 1848]
   |         Lomariopsidaceae
   |         Dryopteridaceae
   |         Hymenophyllopsis [Hymenophyllopsidaceae]
   |         Totedea superba
   |--Marattiaceae [Marattiales]
   |    |--Marattia excavata
   |    |--Angiopteris
   |    |    |--A. crassipes Wall. ex Presl 1845
   |    |    |--A. evecta (Forster) Hoffm. 1796 [=Polypodium evectum Forster 1786]
   |    |    `--A. salicifolia (Presl) de Vries 1853 [=Psilodochea salicifolia Presl 1845]
   |    `--Psaronius [incl. Stipitopteris]
   |--Osmunda [Osmundaceae]
   |    |--O. cinnamomea
   |    |--O. claytoniana Linnaeus 1753 (see below for synonymy)
   |    |--O. japonica Thunberg 1780 (see below for synonymy)
   |    `--O. regalis
   |         |--O. r. var. regalis
   |         `--O. r. var. spectabilis
        |    |--Gleichenia gigantea Wall. ex Hooker & Bauer 1840
        |    |--Dicranopteris
        |    |    |--D. bifida [=Sticherus bifidus]
        |    |    |--D. flexuosa
        |    |    `--D. linearis (Burm. f.) Underw. 1907 (see below for synonymy)
        |    |         |--D. l. var. linearis
        |    |         `--D. l. var. montana Holtt. 1957 (see below for synonymy)
        |    |--Diplopterygium glaucum [incl. Gleichenia japonica]
        |    `--Gleichenipteris antarcticus
        `--+--+--+--Cheiropleuria [Cheiropleuriaceae]
           |  |  |    `--C. bicuspis
           |  |  `--Dipteris [Dipteridaceae]
           |  |       `--D. conjugata
           |  `--Matoniaceae
                 |    |--Dicksonia
                 |    |    |--D. antarctica
                 |    |    `--D. squarrosa
                 |    |--Coniopteris manamanensis
                 |    |--Cibotium barometz (Linnaeus) Smith 1842 (see below for synonymy)
                 |    `--Haydenia Seward 1912
                 |         `--H. thyrsopteroides
                    |    |--Pteridaceae
                    |    |--Adiantaceae
                    |    `--Dennstaedtiaceae
                    `--Polypodiaceae [Polypodiales]
                         |--Aglaomorpha coronans (Wall.) Copel. 1929 (see below for synonymy)
                         |--Neocheiropteris normalis (Don) Tagawa 1952 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--P. crustacea
                         |    `--P. sinuosa [=Polypodium sinuosum]
                         |    |--L. carnosum (Smith) Presl 1849 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    `--L. rostratum (Bedd.) Tagawa 1966 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--B. henryi (Hieron.) Tagawa 1966 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    `--B. platyrhynchos
                         |    |--D. mollis Bedd. 1867 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--D. propinqua (Wall.) Smith apud Bedd. 1866 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    `--D. quercifolia (Linnaeus) Smith 1841 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--L. chinensis Ching 1929
                         |    |--L. duclouxii Christ 1907
                         |    `--L. involuta (Don) Presl 1836 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--C. hemionitidea Presl 1849 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--C. pedunculata (Hooker & Grev.) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    `--C. pothifolia (Don) Presl 1849 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--A. himalayensis (Hooker) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--A. lehmannii (Mett.) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--A. tatsiensis (Fries & Bureau) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--A. wallichiana (Spr.) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    `--A. wardii (Clarke) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium wardii Clarke 1889]
                         |    |--M. cuspidatum (Don) Tagawa 1966 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--M. dilatatum (Bedd.) Sledge 1960 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--M. fortuni (Moore) Ching 1933 [=Drynaria fortuni Moore 1855]
                         |    |--M. hymenodes (Kunze) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--M. membranaceum (Don) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    `--M. punctatum (Linnaeus) Copel. 1929 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--P. adnascens (Sw.) Ching 1935 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--P. costata (Presl) Tagawa & Iwats. 1967 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--P. flocculosa (Don) Ching 1935 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--P. heteractis (Mett.) Ching 1935 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--P. lanceolata (Linnaeus) Farw. 1931
                         |    |--P. mannii (Gies.) Ching 1935 [=Niphobolus mannii Gies. 1901]
                         |    |--P. mollis (Kunze) Ching 1935 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    `--P. nuda (Gies.) Ching 1935 [=Niphobolus nudus Gies. 1901]
                         |    |--C. ebenipes (Hooker) Copel. 1947 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--C. erythrocarpus (Mett.) Tagawa 1966 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--C. griffithianus (Hooker) Copel. 1947 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--C. malacodon (Hooker) Copel. 1947 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--C. nigrovenius (Christ) Iwats. 1975 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--C. oxylobus (Wall.) Sledge 1960 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    |--C. quasidivaricatus (Hayata) Copel. 1947 (see below for synonymy)
                         |    `--C. stewardtii (Bedd.) Copel. 1947 (see below for synonymy)
                              |--L. bicolor (Takeda) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                              |--L. clathratus (Clarke) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                              |--L. contortus (Christ) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                              |--L. loriformis (Wall.) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                              |--L. nudus (Hooker) Ching 1933 [=Pleopeltis nuda Hooker 1823]
                              |--L. scolopendrium (Ham.) Tagawa 1966 (see below for synonymy)
                              |--L. subconfluens Ching 1933
                              |--L. sublinearis (Baker) Ching 1933 (see below for synonymy)
                              `--L. suboligolepidus Ching 1933
Nomina nuda: Dicksonia fibrosa Colenso 1845
             D. lanata Colenso 1845
             Lomaria deflexa Colenso 1845
             L. deltoides Colenso 1845
             L. heterophylla Colenso 1845
             L. latifolia Colenso 1845
             L. linearis Colenso 1845
             L. nigra Colenso 1845
             L. rotundifolia Colenso 1845

Aglaomorpha coronans (Wall.) Copel. 1929 [=Polypodium coronans Wall. ex Mett. 1857, Drynaria coronans (Wall.) Smith apud Bedd. 1865, Pseudodrynaria coronans (Wall.) Ching 1940]

Arthromeris himalayensis (Hooker) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium himalayense Hooker 1863, Pleopeltis himalayensis (Hooker) Bedd. 1869; incl. Po. venustum Wall. ex Clarke 1880]

Arthromeris lehmannii (Mett.) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium lehmannii Mett. 1857, Pleopeltis lehmannii (Mett.) Bedd. 1868; incl. Arthromeris lungtauensis Ching 1933]

Arthromeris tatsiensis (Fries & Bureau) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium tatsiense Fries & Bureau ex Christ 1905]

Arthromeris wallichiana (Spr.) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium juglandifolium Don 1825 non von Humboldt & Bonpland ex von Willdenow 1810, Po. wallichianum Spr. 1827, Pleopeltis juglandifolia (Don) Moore 1857]

Aspleniopsis aplenioides (Holttum) Pichi-Sermolli 1977 [=Rheopteris asplenioides Holttum 1962, Austrogramme asplenioides (Holttum) Hennipman 1975)]

Belvisia henryi (Hieron.) Tagawa 1966 [=Hymenolepis henryi Hieron. ex Chr. 1929]

Botrychium daucifolium Wall. ex Hooker & Grev. 1829 [=Sceptridium daucifolium (Wall.) Lyon 1905; incl. S. daucifolium var. parvum Nishida 1966]

Botrychium lanuginosum Wall. ex Hooker & Grev. 1829 [=B. virginianum var. lanuginosum (Wall.) Bedd. 1883, Japonobotrychium lanuginosum (Wall.) Nishida ex Tagawa 1958, Osmundopteris lanuginosum (Wall.) Nishida 1952; incl. J. lanuginosum var. nepalense Nishida 1966]

Botrychium multifidum (Gmel.) Rupr. 1859 [=Osmunda multifida Gmel. 1768, Sceptridium multifidum (Gmel.) Nishida ex Tagawa 1958]

Cibotium barometz (Linnaeus) Smith 1842 [=Polypodium barometz Linnaeus 1753]

Colysis hemionitidea Presl 1849 [=Pleopeltis hemionitidea (Presl) Moore 1862, Polypodium hemionitideum]

Colysis pedunculata (Hooker & Grev.) Ching 1933 [=Ceterach pedunculatum Hooker & Grev. 1827; incl. Gymnogramma hamiltoniana Hooker 1864, Selliguea hamiltoniana (Hooker) Bedd. 1867]

Colysis pothifolia (Don) Presl 1849 [=Hemionitis pothifolia Don 1825, C. elliptica var. pothifolia (Don) Ching 1933; incl. Gymnogramma elliptica (Thunberg) Hooker & Bak. 1868, Selliguea elliptica (Thunberg) Bedd. 1870]

Crypsinus ebenipes (Hooker) Copel. 1947 [=Polypodium ebenipes Hooker 1863, Phymatodes ebenipes (Hooker) Ching 1933, Pleopeltis ebenipes (Hooker) Bedd. 1866]

Crypsinus erythrocarpus (Mett.) Tagawa 1966 [=Polypodium erythrocarpum Mett. ex Kuhn 1869, Goniophlebium erythrocarpum (Mett.) Bedd. 1876, Phymatodes erythrocarpa (Mett.) Ching 1933]

Crypsinus griffithianus (Hooker) Copel. 1947 [=Polypodium griffithianum Hooker 1854, Phymatodes griffithiana (Hooker) Ching 1933, Pleopeltis griffithiana (Hooker) Moore 1857]

Crypsinus malacodon (Hooker) Copel. 1947 [=Polypodium malacodon Hooker 1863, Phymatodes malacodon (Hooker) Ching 1933, Pleopeltis malacodon (Hooker) Bedd. 1883]

Crypsinus nigrovenius (Christ) Iwats. 1975 [=Polypodium shensiense var. nigrovenium Christ 1906, Phymatodes nigrovenia (Christ) Ching 1933, Po. nigrovenium (Christ) Ching 1930]

Crypsinus oxylobus (Wall.) Sledge 1960 [=Polypodium oxylobum Wall. ex Kunze 1851, Phymatodes oxyloba (Wall.) Presl ex Ching 1933, Po. hastatum var. oxylobum (Wall.) Clarke 1880; incl. Po. trifidum Don 1825 non Hoffm. 1790]

Crypsinus quasidivaricatus (Hayata) Copel. 1947 [=Polypodium divaricatum Hayata 1909 non Fourn. 1872, Po. quasidivaricatum Hayata 1911, Phymatodes quasidivaricata (Hayata) Ching 1933]

Crypsinus stewardtii (Bedd.) Copel. 1947 [=Pleopeltis stewardtii Bedd. 1867, Phymatodes stewardtii (Bedd.) Ching 1933, Polypodium stewardtii (Bedd.) Clarke 1880; incl. Po. cyrtolobum Smith ex Clarke 1880, Pleopeltis malacodon var. majus (Hooker) Bedd. 1883]

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw. 1907 [=Polypodium lineare Burm. f. 1768, Gleichenia linearis (Burm. f.) Clarke 1880; incl. G. dichotoma, G. lanigera Don 1825]

Dicranopteris linearis var. montana Holtt. 1957 [incl. D. warburgii (Christ) Nakai 1950]

Drynaria mollis Bedd. 1867 [incl. Polypodium rivale Mett. ex Baker 1867]

Drynaria propinqua (Wall.) Smith apud Bedd. 1866 [=Polypodium propinquum Wall. ex Mett. 1857]

Drynaria quercifolia (Linnaeus) Smith 1841 [=Polypodium quercifolium Linnaeus 1753]

Helminthostachys zeylanica (Linnaeus) Hooker 1840 [=Osmunda zeylanica Linnaeus 1753]

Lemmaphyllum carnosum (Smith) Presl 1849 [=Drymoglossum carnosum Smith in Hooker 1841]

Lemmaphyllum rostratum (Bedd.) Tagawa 1966 [=Pleopeltis rostrata Bedd. 1867, Polypodium rostratum Hooker 1854 non Burm. f. 1768, Po. subrostratum Chr. 1906, Lemmaphyllum subrostratum (Chr.) Ching 1933, Lepidogrammitis subrostrata (Chr.) Ching 1940]

Lepisorus bicolor (Takeda) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium excavatum var. bicolor Takeda 1915, Pleopeltis bicolor (Takeda) Sledge 1960]

Lepisorus clathratus (Clarke) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium clathratum Clarke 1880, Pleopeltis clathrata (Clarke) Bedd. 1883; incl. Lepisorus nepalensis Iwats. 1975]

Lepisorus contortus (Christ) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium lineare var. contortum Christ 1897, P. contortum (Christ) Christ 1911]

Lepisorus loriformis (Wall.) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium loriforme Wall. ex Mett. 1857, Pleopeltis loriformis (Wall.) Alston & Bonner 1956]

Lepisorus scolopendrium (Ham.) Tagawa 1966 [=Polypodium scolopendrium Ham. in Don 1825, L. excavatus var. scolopendrius (Don) Ching 1933, Pleopeltis scolopendria (Don) Alston & Bonner 1956]

Lepidorus sublinearis (Baker) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium sublineare Baker ex Takeda 1915]

Loxogramme involuta (Don) Presl 1836 [=Grammitis involuta Don 1825, Gymnogramma involuta (Don) Hooker 1864]

Microsorium cuspidatum (Don) Tagawa 1966 [=Polypodium cuspidatum Don 1825, Phymatodes cuspidata (Don) Smith 1857; incl. Po. leiorhizum Wall. ex Mett. 1856, Pleopeltis leiorhiza (Wall.) Moore 1862, Po. lucidum Roxb. 1844, Microsorium lucidum (Roxb.) Copel. 1947, Phymatodes lucida (Roxb.) Ching 1933]

Microsorium dilatatum (Bedd.) Sledge 1960 [=Pleopeltis dilatata Bedd. 1866, Polypodium dilatatum Wall. ex Hooker 1863 nec Hoffm. 1796 nec Liebm. 1849; incl. Microsorium hancockii (Baker) Ching 1933]

Microsorium hymenodes (Kunze) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium hymenodes Kunze 1850]

Microsorium membranaceum (Don) Ching 1933 [=Polypodium membranaceum Don 1892, Pleopeltis membranacea (Don) Moore 1860]

Microsorium punctatum (Linnaeus) Copel. 1929 [=Acrostichum punctatum Linnaeus 1753, Pleopeltis punctata (Linnaeus) Bedd. 1876, Polypodium punctatum (Linnaeus) Sw. 1801 non Thunberg 1784]

Neocheiropteris normalis (Don) Tagawa 1952 [=Polypodium normale Don 1825, Microsorium normale (Don) Ching 1933, Neolepisorus normalis (Don) Ching 1940, Pleopeltis normalis (Don) Moore 1862]

Nephrolepis cordifolia (Linnaeus) Presl 1836 [=Polypodium cordifolium Linnaeus 1753; incl. Aspidium auriculatum Wall. ex Don 1825, Nephrodium edule Don 1825]

Nephrolepis delicatula (Decne.) Pichi-Ser. 1968 [=Nephrodium delicatulum Decne. in von Jacquin 1844]

Oleandra pistillaris (Sw.) Chr. 1934 [=Aspidium pistillare Sw. 1801; incl. O. neriiformis Cavanilles 1799]

Oleandra wallichii (Hooker) Presl 1836 [=Aspidium wallichii Hooker 1823; incl. Neuronia asplenioides Don 1825]

Osmunda claytoniana Linnaeus 1753 [incl. Osmunda claytoniana var. vestita (Wall.) Milde 1868, Osmundastrum claytonianum var. vestitum (Wall.) Tagawa 1941]

Osmunda japonica Thunberg 1780 [incl. O. regalis var. spectabilis (von Willdenow) Gray 1972]

Pyrrosia adnascens (Sw.) Ching 1935 [=Polypodium adnascens Sw. 1806, Niphobolus adnascens (Sw.) Kaulf. 1824]

Pyrrosia costata (Presl) Tagawa & Iwats. 1967 [=Niphobolus costatus Presl ex Bedd. 1868; incl. N. beddomeana Gies. 1901, Pyrrosia beddomeana (Gies.) Ching 1935, N. stigmosus Bedd. 1883, Polypodium stigmosum]

Pyrrosia flocculosa (Don) Ching 1935 [=Polypodium flocculosum Don 1825, Niphobolus flocculosus (Don) Bedd. 1866]

Pyrrosia heteractis (Mett.) Ching 1935 [=Polypodium heteractis Mett. ex Kuhn 1869, Niphobolus heteractis (Mett.) Smith 1877, Pyrrosia lingua var. heteractis (Mett.) Hovenk. 1984]

Pyrrosia mollis (Kunze) Ching 1935 [=Niphobolus mollis Kunze 1848; incl. P. penangiana]

Woodwardia unigemmata (Makino) Nakai 1925 [=W. radicans var. unigemmata Makino 1918; incl. W. himalaica Ching & Wu in Wu 1983]

* Type species of genus indicated


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Colenso, W. 1845a. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841-2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany. Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 2: 210-234.

Colenso, W. 1845b. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841-2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany (concluded). Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 2: 241-308.

Frey, W., M. Hofmann & H. H. Hilger. 2001. The gametophyte-sporophyte junction: Unequivocal hints for two evolutionary lines of archegoniate land plants. Flora 196: 431-445.

Gomez, B., F. Thévenard, M. Fantin & L. Guisberti. 2002. Late Cretaceous plants from the Bonarelli Level of the Venetian Alps, northeastern Italy. Cretaceous Research 23: 671-685.

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CKT070314 (phylogeny and references); MAK990611 (Introduction); Wikipedia (LIfe Cycle, Structure)

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