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The order Voltziales contains the late Carboniferous and early Permian "walchian conifers", and probably represents the ancestral stock of later conifers. They are generally small trees with an orthotropic stem and plagiotropic laterals (Hernandez-Castillo et al., 2001). Pollen was born on a terminal cone, while ovules are born either in terminal cones or in fertile zones in the midregion of lateral branches (mostly the former) (Hernandez-Castillo et al., 2001; Rothwell et al., 2005).


The taxonomy of Voltziales is rather difficult, with a large number of invalid and illegitimate taxa, as well as many morphotaxa. Any errors below are entirely my own.

<==Voltziales [Walchiaceae]
   |  i. s.: Lecrosia
   |           |--L. gouldii
   |           `--L. grandeuryi
   |         Ernestiodendron filiciforme
   |         Kungurodendron sharovii
   |         Concholepis harrisii
   |         Timanostrobus muravievii
   |         Ullmannia frumentaria
   |         Dolmitia cittertiae
   |         Walchiostrobus [incl. Thuringiostrobus]
   |           |--W. gothanii [=Lebachia gothanii]
   |           `--W. lodevensis
   |         Batenburgia sakmarica
   |         Maculostrobus willsi Townrow 1962
   |         Aethophyllum stipulare
   |--Thucydia Hernandez-Castillo, Rothwell & Mapes 2001 [Thucydiaceae]
   |    `--*T. mahoningensis Hernandez-Castillo, Rothwell & Mapes 2001
   |--Emporia Mapes & Rothwell 2003 [Emporiaceae]
   |    `--*E. lockardii (Mapes & Rothwell) Mapes & Rothwell 2003 (see below for synonymy)
   |--Ferugliocladus [Ferugliocladaceae]
   |    |--F. patigonicus
   |    `--F. riojanum
   `--Utrechtiaceae [Lebachiaceae]
        |--Walchianthus cylindraceus
        |--Majonica alpina
        |--Otovicia hypnoides [=Lebachia hypnoides]
        |    |--O. junkeri
        |    |--O. leonardii
        |    `--O. visscheri
        |    |--V. heterophylla
        |    |--V. hexagona
        |    `--V. liebeana [=Pseudovoltzia liebeana]
        `--Utrechtia Mapes & Rothwell in Rothwell & Mapes 2003 (see below for synonymy)
             |--*U. floriniformis Mapes & Rothwell in Rothwell & Mapes 2003 (see below for synonymy)
             |--‘Lebachia’ americana
             |--‘Walchia’ arnhardtii [=Ernestodendron arnhardtii]
             |--‘Walchia’ crassus
             |--‘Lebachia’ frondosa
             |--‘Lebachia’ garnettensis
             |--‘Walchia’ germanica [=Ernestodendron germanica]
             |--‘Lebachia’ goeppertiana
             |--‘Lebachia’ laxifolia
             |--‘Lebachia’ parvifolia
             |--‘Walchia’ schlotheimii [=Lebachia schlotheimii]
             `--‘Lebachia’ speciosa

*Emporia lockardii (Mapes & Rothwell) Mapes & Rothwell 2003 [=Lebachia lockardii Mapes & Rothwell 1984]

Utrechtia Mapes & Rothwell in Rothwell & Mapes 2003 [incl. Hermitia, Lebachia (nom. illeg.), Walchia]

*Utrechtia floriniformis Mapes & Rothwell in Rothwell & Mapes 2003 [incl. *Lebachia piniformis, *Walchia piniformis (n. d.)]

* Type species of generic name indicated


Hernandez-Castillo, G. R., G. W. Rothwell & G. Mapes. 2001. Thucydiaceae fam. nov., with a review and reevaluation of Paleozoic walchian conifers. International Journal of Plant Science 162 (5): 1155-1185.

Mapes, G., & G. W. Rothwell. 2003. Validation of the names Emporiaceae, Emporia, and Emporia lockardii. Taxon 52: 327-328.

Rothwell, G. W., & G. Mapes. 2001. Barthelia furcata gen. et sp. nov., with a review of Paleozoic coniferophytes and a discussion of coniferophyte systematics. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162 (3): 637-667.

Rothwell, G. W., & G. Mapes. 2003. Validation of the names Utrechtiaceae, Utrechtia, and Utrechtia floriniformis. Taxon 52: 329-330.

Rothwell, G. W., G. Mapes & G. R. Hernandez-Castillo. 2005. Hanskerpia gen. nov. and phylogenetic relationships among the most ancient conifers (Voltziales). Taxon 54 (3): 733-750.

Wills, L. J. 1970. The Triassic succession in the central Midlands in its regional setting. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 126: 225-283.


Christopher 23:57, 14 May 2009 (UTC)

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