Angiospermae

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In most taxonomies, the flowering plants are treated as a coherent group. The most popular descriptive name has been Angiospermae (Angiosperms), with Anthophyta ("flowering plants") a second choice. These names are not linked to any rank. The [[Wettstein system]] and the [[Engler system]] use the name Angiospermae, at the assigned rank of subdivision.  The [[Reveal system]] treated flowering plants as subdivision [[Magnoliophytina]] (Frohne & U. Jensen ''ex'' Reveal, Phytologia 79: 70 1996), but later split it to [[Magnoliopsida]], [[Liliopsida]] and [[Rosopsida]]. The [[Takhtajan system]] and [[Cronquist system]] treat this group at the rank of [[division]], leading to the name Magnoliophyta. The [[Dahlgren system]] and [[Thorne system]] treat this group at the rank of class, leading to the name Magnoliopsida. However, the [[APG system]] of 1998 and the [[APG II system]] of 2003 do not treat angiosperms as a formal taxon but rather an informal clade.
In most taxonomies, the flowering plants are treated as a coherent group. The most popular descriptive name has been Angiospermae (Angiosperms), with Anthophyta ("flowering plants") a second choice. These names are not linked to any rank. The [[Wettstein system]] and the [[Engler system]] use the name Angiospermae, at the assigned rank of subdivision.  The [[Reveal system]] treated flowering plants as subdivision [[Magnoliophytina]] (Frohne & U. Jensen ''ex'' Reveal, Phytologia 79: 70 1996), but later split it to [[Magnoliopsida]], [[Liliopsida]] and [[Rosopsida]]. The [[Takhtajan system]] and [[Cronquist system]] treat this group at the rank of [[division]], leading to the name Magnoliophyta. The [[Dahlgren system]] and [[Thorne system]] treat this group at the rank of class, leading to the name Magnoliopsida. However, the [[APG system]] of 1998 and the [[APG II system]] of 2003 do not treat angiosperms as a formal taxon but rather an informal clade.
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==Phylogeny==
 
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As noted above, relationships between the major angiosperm clades are uncertain, and the tree below represents just one of the topologies that have been suggested.
 
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[[Progymnospermida|<==]]Angiospermae (see below for synonymy)
 
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    |--''Archaefructus'' [Archaefructaceae]
 
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    |    |--*''A. liaoningensis''
 
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    |    `--''A. sinensis'' Sun, Ji ''et al.'' 2002
 
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    `--+--''Amborella'' [Amborellaceae]
 
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      |    `--''A. trichopoda''
 
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      `--+--+--[[Nymphaeales]]
 
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          |  `--Hydatellaceae [Hydatellales, Hydatellanae]
 
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          |      |--''Hydatella inconspicua''
 
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          |      `--''Trithuria submersa''
 
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          `--+--[[Austrobaileyales]]
 
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            `--+--Chloranthaceae
 
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                |    |  ''i. s.'': ''Chloranthistemon''
 
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                |    |--''Hedyosmum''
 
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                |    `--+--''Chloranthus multistachys''
 
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                |      `--+--''Sarcandra''
 
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                |          `--''Ascarina''
 
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                `--+--+--+--[[Ranunculidae]]
 
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                  |  |  `--''Ceratophyllum'' [Ceratophyllaceae, Ceratophyllales]
 
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                  |  |      |--''C. demersum''
 
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                  |  |      `--''C. submersum''
 
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                  |  `--[[Monocotyledones]]
 
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                  `--+--+--[[Magnoliales]]
 
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                      |  `--[[Laurales]]
 
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                      `--+--+--[[Piperales]]
 
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                        |  `--[[Aristolochiales]]
 
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                        `--Winterineae
 
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                              |--''Drimys'' [Winteraceae, Winterales]
 
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                              |    |--''D. piperita''
 
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                              |    `--''D. winteri''
 
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                              `--Canellales
 
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                                  |--''Canella'' [Canellaceae]
 
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                                  `--''Tasmannia''
 
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Angiospermae [Angiospermophyta, Annonanae, Anthophyta, Chloranthineae, Dicotyledoneae, Magnolianae, Magnoliidae]
 
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Angiospermae ''incertae sedis'':
 
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    ''Lycium''
 
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      |--''L. afrum''
 
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      |--''L. barbarum''
 
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      |--''L. berlandieri''
 
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      `--''L. ferocissimum''
 
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    ''Coffea''
 
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      |--''C. arabica''
 
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      |--''C. canephora''
 
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      `--''C. liberica''
 
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    ''Ileostylus micranthus''
 
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    ''Alepis flavida''
 
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    ''Peraxilla''
 
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      |--''P. colensoi''
 
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      `--''P. tetrapetala''
 
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    ''Tristerix tetrandrus''
 
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    ''Kagenkia oblonga''
 
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    ''Forsythia''
 
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    ''Pseudobotrys''
 
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    ''Leucanthemum vulgare''
 
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    ''Hoheria angustafolia''
 
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    ''Chondrilla''
 
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      |--''C. juncea''
 
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      `--''C. prenanthoides''
 
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    ''Acroptilon repens''
 
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    ''Santolina marchii''
 
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    ''Cynara cardunculus''
 
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    ''Murraya''
 
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    ''Pometia''
 
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    ×''Citrofortunella microcarpa''
 
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    ''Beilschmiedia''
 
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      |--''B. taraire''
 
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      `--''B. tawa''
 
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    ''Trilepidea adamsii''
 
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    ''Dicotilophyllum''
 
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      |--''D. pusillum''
 
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      `--''D. spatulatium''
 
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    ''Agoseris cuspidata''
 
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    ''Muhlenbergia cuspidata''
 
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    ''Phyllites''
 
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      |--''P. platanoides''
 
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      `--''P. proteaceus'' Bozzi 1891
 
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    ''Carcophyllum leogianense''
 
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    ''Mancuna deeringiana''
 
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    ''[[Inga]]''
 
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    ''Erythrina crista-galli''
 
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    ''Salpichroa''
 
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      |--''S. diffusa''
 
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      |--''S. origanifolia''
 
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      `--''S. rhomboidea''
 
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    ''Adenocalymma paulistarum''
 
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    ''Acnistus''
 
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      |--''A. arborescens''
 
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      |--''A. breviflorus''
 
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      `--''A. parviflorus''
 
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    ''Dunalia''
 
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      |--''D. breviflora''
 
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      `--''D. lycioides''
 
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    ''Parapiptadenia excelsa''
 
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    ''Strobilanthes kunthiana''
 
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    ''Donax'' [Marantaceae]
 
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      `--''D. canniformis''
 
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    ''Clausena excavata''
 
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    ''Forrestia griffithii''
 
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    ''Helecia serrata''
 
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    ''Micromelum minatum''
 
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    ''Parashorea malaanonan''
 
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    ''Pronephrium asperum''
 
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    ''Schindapsus perakensis''
 
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    ''Stenochlaena palustris''
 
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    ''Urophyllum nigricans''
 
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    ''Trianthema turgidifolia''
 
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    ''Eriospermum'' [Eriospermaceae]
 
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    ''Pentastemona'' [Pentastemonaceae]
 
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    ''Alternanthera''
 
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      |--''A. achyrantha''
 
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      |--''A. denticulata''
 
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      |--''A. philoxeroides''
 
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      `--''A. sessilis''
 
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    ''Appomattoxia''
 
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    ''Codon''
 
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    ''Zippelia''
 
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    ''Berberidopsis'' [Berberidopsidaceae]
 
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    ''Corynocarpus'' [Corynocarpaceae]
 
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      `--''C. laevigatus''
 
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    ''Haptanthus''
 
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    ''Heteranthia''
 
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    ''Pteleocarpa''
 
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    Cynocrambaceae
 
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      |--''Cynocrambe''
 
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      `--''Theligonum cynocrambe''
 
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    ''Pileus conica''
 
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    ''Plectritis congesta''
 
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    ''Osmaronia dioica''
 
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    ''‘Doliostrobus’ rerollei'' Marion 1884
 
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    ''Pongamia pinnata''
 
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    ''Pemphis acidula''
 
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    ''Tristellateia australasiae''
 
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    ''Thespesia''
 
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      |--''T. grandiflora''
 
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      `--''T. populnea''
 
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    ''Mira undulata'' Colenso 1845
 
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    ''Hippeastrum aulicum''
 
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    ''Lesquerella fendleri''
 
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    ''Ipomopsis aggregata''
 
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    ''Cyanella'' [Tecophileaceae]
 
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    ''Calochortus longebarbatus''
 
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    ''Ugni molinae''
 
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    ''Afropollis''
 
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      |--''A. jardinus'' (Brenner) Doyle ''et al.'' 1982
 
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      `--''A. kahramanensis'' Ibrahim & Schrank 1995
 
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    ''Diporocolpopollenites'' Yi & Batten 2002
 
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      `--*''D. kachiensis'' Yi & Batten 2002
 
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    ''Dilwynites'' Harris 1965
 
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      `--*''D. granulatus'' Harris 1965
 
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    ''Retitricolpites anguloluminosus'' (Anderson) Yi & Batten 2002 (see below for synonymy)
 
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    ''[[Aquilapollenites]]''
 
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    ''Alnipollenites''
 
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      |--''A. trina'' (Stanley) Norton ''in'' Norton & Hall 1969
 
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      `--''A. verus'' (Potonié) Potonié 1960
 
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    ''Bratzevaea amurensis'' (Bratzeva) Takahashi ''in'' Takahashi & Shimono 1982
 
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    ''Callistopollenites''
 
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      |--''C. comis'' Srivastava 1969
 
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      `--''C. tumidoporus'' Srivastava 1969
 
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    ''Caryapollenites''
 
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      |--''C. scabratus'' Groot & Groot 1962
 
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      `--''C. triangulus'' (Pflug) Krutzsch 1961
 
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    ''Cranwellia''
 
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      |--''C. edmontonensis'' Srivastava 1967
 
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      `--''C. striata'' (Couper) Srivastava 1967
 
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    ''Fibulapollis mirificus'' (Chlonova) Chlonova 1961
 
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    ''Jianghanpollis''
 
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      |--''J. mikros'' Wang & Zhao 1979
 
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      `--''J. radiatus'' Wang & Zhao 1979
 
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    ''Leptopecopites pocockii'' (Srivastava) Srivastava 1978
 
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    ''Loranthacites catterallii'' Srivastava 1969
 
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    ''Penetetrapites inconspicuus'' Sweet 1986
 
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    ''Porocolpopollenites vestibulum'' (Potonié) Thomson & Pflug 1953
 
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    ''Proteacidites''
 
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      |--''P. magnus'' Samoilovitch 1961
 
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      |--''P. retusus'' Anderson 1960
 
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      `--''P. thalmannii'' Anderson 1960
 
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    ''Retitrescolpites'' Sah 1967
 
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    ''Tricolpites'' Cookson ''ex'' Couper 1953
 
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      |--''T. microreticulatus'' Belsky, Boltenhagen & Potonié 1965
 
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      |--''T. parvus'' Stanley 1965
 
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      |--''T. prolata'' Cookson 1947
 
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      `--''T. vulgaris'' (Pierce) Srivastava 1969
 
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    ''Tricolporites prolata'' Cookson 1947
 
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    ''Wodehouseia spinata'' Stanley 1961
 
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    ''Brenneripollis peroreticulatus'' (Brenner) Juhász & Góczán 1985
 
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    ''Cretacaeiporites''
 
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      |--''C. densimurus'' Schrank & Ibrahim 1995
 
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      |--''C. mulleri''
 
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      `--''C. polygonalis''
 
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    ''Dichastopollenites ghazalatensis'' Ibrahim 1996
 
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    ''Integritetradites porosus'' Schrank & Mahmoud 2000
 
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    ''Retimonocolpites variplicatus'' Schrank & Mahmoud 1998
 
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    ''Rousea''
 
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      |--''R. delicipollis'' Srivastava 1977
 
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      `--''R. miculipollis'' Srivastava 1975
 
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    ''Striatopollis trochuensis'' (Srivastava) Farabee & Canright 1986
 
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''Retitricolpites anguloluminosus'' (Anderson) Yi & Batten 2002 [=''Tricolporites anguloluminosus'' Anderson 1960]
 
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of genus indicated
 
==Links==
==Links==
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