Angiospermae

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The Angiospermae (flowering plants) are traditionally divided into two subgroups, the [[Dicotyledoneae|dicotyledon]]s and [[Monocotyledones|monocotyledons]] (often shortened to dicots and monocots). Dicotyledons have two [[seed leaf|seed leaves]], flower parts in multiples of four or five, [[vascular tissue]] surrounding the stem and reticulate leaf veins. Monocotyledons have a single seed leaf, flower parts in multiples of three, vascular tissue in bundles and parallel leaf veins. Recent phylogenetic analyses agree, however, that the dicotyledons are paraphyletic to the monocotyledons. The majority of dicotyledons fall in a clade referred to as [[Ranunculidae|eudicots]], marked by possession of [[tricolporate]] pollen. The remainder of the "dicots" - the traditional subclass [[Magnoliidae]] - form the base of the paraphyletic clade. Relationships of the "magnoliids" to the monocots and eudicots are uncertain. All recent studies agree that the so-called ANITA grade (after its component members ''Amborella'', Nymphaeales, Illliciaceae, Trimeniaceae and ''Austrobaileya'') forms the basalmost group of angiosperms. The positions of the other magnoliid groups are unclear, and the arrangement shown below is only one of many possibilities.
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The '''flowering plants''' or '''angiosperms'''  are the most speciose group of [[Embryophyta|land plants]]. The flowering plants and the [[Gymnospermae|gymnosperms]] comprise the two extant groups of [[Spermatophyta|seed plants]]. The flowering plants are distinguished from other seed plants by a series of [[Apomorphy|apomorphies]].
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[[Tracheophyta|<==]]Angiospermae [Angiospermophyta, Anthophyta, Dicotyledoneae]
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==Description==
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    |--''Archaefructus'' [Archaefructaceae]
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    |    |--*''A. liaoningensis''
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    |    `--''A. sinensis'' Sun, Ji ''et al.'' 2002
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    `--Magnoliidae [Annonanae, Magnolianae, Chloranthineae]
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        |  ''i. s.'': ''Lactoris'' [Lactoridaceae, Lactoridineae]
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        |--+--[[Nymphaeales]]
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        |  `--''Amborella'' [Amborellaceae]
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        |      `--''A. trichopoda''
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        `--+--[[Austrobaileyales]]
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            `--+--[[Ranunculidae]]
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              `--+--Chloranthaceae
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                  |    |  ''i. s.'': ''Chloranthistemon''
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                  |    |--''Hedyosmum''
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                  |    `--+--''Chloranthus''
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                  |      `--+--''Sarcandra''
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                  |          `--''Ascarina''
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                  `--+--+--[[Magnoliales]]
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                    |  `--[[Laurales]]
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                    `--+--[[Monocotyledones]]
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                        `--+--[[Piperales]]
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                          `--Winterineae
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                                |--''Drimys'' [Winteraceae, Winterales]
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                                |    `--''D. piperita''
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                                `--Canellales
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                                    |--''Canella'' [Canellaceae]
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                                    `--''Tasmannia''
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Angiospermae ''incertae sedis'':
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[[Flower]]s with closed [[carpel]] enclosing the [[ovule]]s (carpel(s) and accessory parts may become the [[fruit]]); [[stamen]]s with two pairs of [[pollen]] sacs; male [[gametophyte]] reduced to three cells; female gametophyte reduced to seven cells with eight [[nucleus|nuclei]]; seed contains [[endosperm]] formed through [[double fertilisation]]; [[phloem]] tissue composed of [[sieve tube]]s and [[companion cell]]s.
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    ''Aristida''
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      |--''A. holathera''
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      |--''A. ramosa''
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      `--''A. stricta''
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    ''Lycium''
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      |--''L. afrum''
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      |--''L. barbarum''
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      `--''L. ferocissimum''
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    ''Coffea''
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      |--''C. arabica''
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      |--''C. canephora''
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      `--''C. liberica''
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    ''Ileostylus micranthus''
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    ''Alepis flavida''
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    ''Peraxilla''
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      |--''P. colensoi''
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      `--''P. tetrapetala''
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    ''Tristerix tetrandrus''
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    ''Kagenkia oblonga''
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    ''Forsythia''
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    ''Adenocarpus''
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    ''Echinospartum''
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    ''Pseudobotrys''
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    ''Leucanthemum vulgare''
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    ''Banksia''
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    ''Hakea''
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    ''Agonis flexuosa''
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    ''Bossiaea foliolosa''
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    ''Hoheria angustafolia''
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    ''Glyceria''
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      |--''G. aquatica''
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      |--''G. fluitans'' [=''Festuca fluitans'']
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      `--''G. trinervata''
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    ''Chondrilla''
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      |--''C. juncea''
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      `--''C. prenanthoides''
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    ''Acroptilon repens''
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    ''Spartium junceum''
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    ''Cercis siliquastrum''
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    ''Santolina marchii''
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    ''Cynara cardunculus''
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    ''Cephalanthus''
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    ''Murraya''
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    ''Pometia''
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    ×''Citrofortunella microcarpa''
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    ''Beilschmiedia''
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      |--''B. taraire''
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      `--''B. tawa''
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    ''Trilepidea adamsii''
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    ''Dicotilophyllum''
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      |--''D. pusillum''
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      `--''D. spatulatium''
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    ''Agoseris cuspidata''
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    ''Muhlenbergia cuspidata''
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    ''Phyllites''
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      |--''P. platanoides''
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      `--''P. proteaceus'' Bozzi 1891
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    ''Carcophyllum leogianense''
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    ''Mancuna deeringiana''
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    ''[[Inga]]''
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    ''Erythrina crista-galli''
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    ''Dicentra cucullaria''
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    ''Salpichroa''
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      |--''S. diffusa''
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      |--''S. origanifolia''
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      `--''S. rhomboidea''
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    ''Adenocalymma paulistarum''
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    ''Acnistus''
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      |--''A. arborescens''
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      |--''A. breviflorus''
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      `--''A. parviflorus''
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    ''Dunalia''
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      |--''D. breviflora''
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      `--''D. lycioides''
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    ''Parapiptadenia excelsa''
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    ''Crotalaria''
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      |--''C. axillaris''
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      |--''C. beddomeana''
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      |--''C. brownei''
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      |--''C. incana''
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      |--''C. juncea''
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      |--''C. retusa''
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      `--''C. verrucosa''
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    ''Strobilanthes kunthiana''
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    Flagellariaceae
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      |--''Flagellaria indica''
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      `--''Susum''
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    ''Donax'' [Marantaceae]
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      `--''D. canniformis''
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    ''Morinda''
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      |--''M. citrifolia''
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      `--''M. elliptica''
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    ''Centotheca lappacea''
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    ''Clausena excavata''
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    ''Dinochloa scabrida''
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    ''Forrestia griffithii''
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    ''Helecia serrata''
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    ''Micromelum minatum''
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    ''Neonauclea calycina''
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    ''Parashorea malaanonan''
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    ''Pavetta''
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    ''Pronephrium asperum''
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    ''Schindapsus perakensis''
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    ''Stenochlaena palustris''
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    ''Urophyllum nigricans''
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    ''Trianthema turgidifolia''
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    ''Eriospermum'' [Eriospermaceae]
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    ''Anthoxanthum horsfieldii''
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    ''Pentastemona'' [Pentastemonaceae]
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    ''Romnalda'' [Laxmanniaceae]
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    Philydraceae
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      |--''Helmholtzia''
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      `--''Orthothylax''
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    ''Alternanthera''
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      |--''A. achyrantha''
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      |--''A. denticulata''
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      |--''A. philoxeroides''
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      `--''A. sessilis''
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    ''Appomattoxia''
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    ''Codon''
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    ''Zippelia''
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    ''Berberidopsis'' [Berberidopsidaceae]
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    ''Corynocarpus'' [Corynocarpaceae]
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      `--''C. laevigatus''
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    ''Haptanthus''
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    ''Heteranthia''
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    ''Pteleocarpa''
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    Cynocrambaceae
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      |--''Cynocrambe''
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      `--''Theligonum cynocrambe''
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    Scheuchzeriaceae
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      |--''Lilaea''
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      `--''Tetroncium''
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    ''Lavandula''
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      |--''L. multifida'' Linnaeus 1753
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      `--''L. vera''
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    ''Pileus conica''
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    ''Plectritis congesta''
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    ''Osmaronia dioica''
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    ''‘Doliostrobus’ rerollei'' Marion 1884
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    ''Pongamia pinnata''
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    ''Pemphis acidula''
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    ''Tristellateia australasiae''
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    ''Thespesia populnea''
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    ''Mira undulata'' Colenso 1845
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    ''Hippeastrum aulicum''
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of genus indicated
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==Vascular anatomy==
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== References ==
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In the dicotyledons, the vascular bundles in the very young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central [[pith]] from an outer [[cortex]]. In each bundle, separating the [[xylem]] and [[phloem]], is a layer of [[meristem]] or active formative tissue known as [[cambium]]; by the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles (interfascicular cambium) a complete ring is formed, and a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside. The soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard xylem persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth.
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Aoki, T., K. O’Donnell, Y. Homma & A. R. Lattanzi. 2003. Sudden-death syndrome of soybean is caused by two morphologically and phylogenetically distinct species within the ''Fusarium solani'' species complex – ''F. virguliforme'' in North America and ''F. tucumaniae'' in South America. ''Mycologia'' 95 (4): 660-684.
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Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They contain no cambium and once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases.
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Atkinson, H. J. 2002. Molecular approaches to novel crop resistance against nematodes. In ''The Biology of Nematodes'' (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 569-598. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).
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== The flower, fruit, and seed ==
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Bannister, P., & G. L. Strong. 2001. The distribution and population structure of the temperate mistletoe ''Ileostylus micranthus'' in the Northern Cemetery, Dunedin, New Zealand. ''New Zealand Journal of Botany'' 39: 225-233.
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===Flowers===
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Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of ''Rafflesia'', the world’s largest flower. ''Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA'' 101 (3): 787-792.
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The characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, and provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species. The function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of [[fruit]] containing [[seed]]s. The floral apparatus may arise terminally on a shoot or from the [[axil]] of a leaf. Occasionally, as in [[Viola|violets]], a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More typically, the flower-bearing portion of the plant is sharply distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, and forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an [[inflorescence]].
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Bauer, R., D. Begerow, A. Nagler & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. The Georgefischeriales: A phylogenetic hypothesis. ''Mycological Research'' 105 (4): 416-424.
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The reproductive cells produced by flowers are of two kinds. [[Microspore]]s which will divide to become [[pollen|pollen grains]] are the "male" cells and are borne in the [[stamen]]s (or [[microsporophyll]]s). The "female" cells called [[megaspore]]s which will divide to become the egg-cell ([[megagametogenesis]]) are contained in the [[ovule]] and enclosed in the [[carpel]] (or [[megasporophyll]]).
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Bergthorsson, U., K. L. Adams, B. Thomason & J. D. Palmer. 2003. Widespread horizontal transfer of mitochondrial genes in flowering plants. ''Nature'' 424: 197-201.
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The flower may consist only of these parts, as in [[Salix|willow]], where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Usually other structures are present and serve to protect the [[sporophyll]]s and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators. The individual members of these surrounding structures are known as [[sepal]]s and [[petal]]s (or [[tepal]]s in flowers such as ''[[Magnolia]]'' where sepals and petals are not distinguishable from each other). The outer series ([[calyx]] of sepals) is usually green and leaf-like, and functions to protect the rest of the flower, especially the bud. The inner series ([[corolla]] of petals) is generally white or brightly colored, and is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract animal pollinators. Attraction is effected by color, scent and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower.
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Bonte, D., L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait. 2002. Spider assemblage structure and stability in a heterogeneous coastal dune system (Belgium). ''Journal of Arachnology'' 30 (2): 331-343.
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While the majority of flowers are perfect or [[hermaphrodite]] (having both male and female parts in the same flower structure), flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization. Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot easily transfer pollen to the [[pistil]] (receptive part of the carpel). Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical (physiological) mechanism called [[self-incompatibility]] to discriminate between self- and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers.
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Briese, D. T., & J. M. Cullen. 2001. The use and usefulness of mites in biological control of weeds. In ''Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress'' (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds.) pp. 453-463. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.
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=== Fertilization and embryogenesis===
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Brown, B. V. 2004. Revision of the subgenus ''Udamochiras'' of ''Melaloncha'' bee-killing flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Metopininae). ''Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society'' 140: 1-42.
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Double fertilization refers to a process in which two [[sperm]] cells fertilize two cells in the [[ovary]]. The [[pollen]] grain adheres to the stigma of the [[carpel]] (female reproductive structure) and grows a [[pollen tube]] that penetrates the [[ovum]] through a tiny pore called a [[micropyle]]. Two sperm cells are released into the ovary through this tube. One of the two sperm cells fertilizes the egg cell, forming a [[diploid]] [[zygote]], also called the [[ovule]]. The other sperm cell fuses with two haploid polar nuclei in the center of the embryo sac. The resulting cell is [[triploid]] (3n). This triploid cell divides through [[mitosis]] and forms the endosperm, a nutrient-rich tissue inside the seed. When seed develops without fertilization, the process is known as [[apomixis]].
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Candolle, A. de. 1855a. ''Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle'' vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.
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=== Fruit and seed ===
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Candolle, A. de. 1855b. ''Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle'' vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.
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As the development of embryo and endosperm proceeds within the embryo-sac, the sac wall enlarges and combines with the [[nucellus]] (which is likewise enlarging) and the [[integument]] to form the ''seed-coat''. The ovary wall develops to form the [[fruit]] or [[pericarp]], whose form is closely associated with the manner of distribution of the seed.  
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Chagas, C. M., V. Rossetti, A. Colariccio, O. Lovisolo, E. W. Kitajima & C. C. Childers. 2001. ''Brevipalpus'' mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) as vectors of plant viruses. In ''Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress'' (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds.) pp. 369-375. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.
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Frequently the influence of fertilization is felt beyond the [[ovary]], and other parts of the flower take part in the formation of the fruit, e.g. the floral receptacle in the [[Malus|apple]], [[Fragaria|strawberry]] and others.
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Chaimanee, Y., D. Jolly, M. Benammi, P. Tafforeau, D. Duzer, I. Moussa & J.-J. Jaeger. 2003. A Middle Miocene hominoid from Thailand and orangutan origins. ''Nature'' 422: 61-65.
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The character of the seed-coat bears a definite relation to that of the fruit. They protect the embryo and aid in dissemination; they may also directly promote germination. Among plants with [[indehiscent]] fruits, the fruit generally provides protection for of the embryo and secures dissemination. In this case, the seed-coat is only slightly developed. If the fruit is [[dehiscent]] and the seed is exposed, the seed-coat is generally well developed, and must discharge the functions otherwise executed by the fruit.
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Charanasri, V., & M. Kongchuensin. 2001. Species and population densities of mites on jujube. In ''Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress'' (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds.) pp. 419-422. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.
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==Evolution==
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Chatrou, L. W. 2003. Myristicineae, a new suborder within Magnoliales. ''Taxon'' 52: 277-279.
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The earliest fossil angiosperm, ''[[Archaefructus]]'', comes from the [[Yixian]] formation in China and is dated to about 125 million years BP (Sun ''et al.'', 2002). Angiosperm pollen has been found in the fossil record perhaps as long ago as 130 million years.
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Coetzee, J. H. 2002. Benefit sharing from flowering bulb – is it still possible? In ''Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Flowerbulbs'' (G. Littlejohn ''et al.'', eds.) ''Acta Horticulturae'' 570: 21-27.
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The relationships of angiosperms to other plant [[taxon|taxa]] remain contentious (see Friedman & Floyd, 2001, for an overview). Morphological data indicated that the [[Gymnospermae|gymnosperms]] were [[paraphyletic]] with regard to the angiosperms, and that the [[Gnetales]] were the closest living relatives of the angiosperms. However, molecular data have indicated that modern gymnosperms form a [[monophyletic]] sister group to angiosperms, with the Gnetales more closely related to (possibly even within) the [[Pinopsida|conifers]]. However, as the gymnosperm [[crown group]] dates back to the [[Carboniferous]], the angiosperm [[stem group|stem]] must have diverged by that time if the molecular analyses are correct. A number of fossil seed plant groups of uncertain relationships are known from within that time frame, and it seems likely that at least some of these taxa lie on the angiosperm stem. Taylor ''et al.'' (2003) demonstrated that [[oleanane]], a [[diagenesis|diagenetic]] product of organic compounds found in angiosperms but absent from living gymnosperms, was present in fossils of the [[Cretaceous]] [[Bennettitales]] and [[Permian]] [[Gigantopteridales]], making these two groups likely angiosperm stem candidates. Other fossil taxa that have been suggested as angiosperm relatives include the [[Glossopteridales]] and ''[[Caytonia]]''.
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Colenso, W. 1845a. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841-2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany. ''Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science'' 2: 210-234.
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Within the angiosperms, recent phylogenetic analyses have mostly agreed that the so-called ANITA grade (including ''[[Amborella]]'', [[Nymphaeales]] and [[Austrobaileyales]]), includes the basalmost living clades. The Austrobaileyales are most likely closer to the remaining angiosperms than are ''Amborella'' and Nymphaeales. Analyses disagree on whether ''Amborella'' alone or an ''Amborella'' + Nymphaeales clade represents the basalmost branch of angiosperms, but the former option is perhaps the more popular. Saarela ''et al.'' (2007) recently demonstrated that the [[Hydatellaceae]] also fall in this area as the sister group to Nymphaeales. The other major angiosperm clades (listed below) form a monophyletic group, but relationships between the clades are uncertain.
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Colenso, W. 1845b. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841-2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany (concluded). ''Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science'' 2: 241-308.
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The great angiosperm radiation occurred in the mid-[[Cretaceous]]. By the late Cretaceous, angiosperms appear to have become the predominant group of land plants, and many fossil plants recognizable as belonging to modern families had appeared.
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Corey, D. T., & I. J. Stout. 1990. Ground surface arachnids in sandhill communities of Florida. ''Journal of Arachnology'' 18: 167-172.
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Flowers are derived from [[leaf]] and [[stem]] components, arising from a combination of [[gene]]s normally responsible for forming new shoots. The most primitive flowers are thought to have had a variable number of flower parts, often separate from (but in contact with) each other. The flowers would have tended to grow in a spiral pattern, to be bisexual, and to be dominated by the [[ovary]]. As flowers grew more advanced, some variations developed parts fused together, with a much more specific number and design, and with either specific sexes per flower or plant, or at least "ovary inferior".
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Corpuz-Raros, L. A. 2002. Philippine acarine biological control agents: Status, bioecology and research prospects. ''Philippine Agricultural Scientist'' 85 (2): 137-154.
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== Classification ==
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Crowder, J. P. 1974. ''Exotic Plant Pests of South Florida''. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (USA).
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The Angiospermae (flowering plants) are traditionally divided into two subgroups, the [[Dicotyledoneae|dicotyledon]]s and [[Monocotyledones|monocotyledons]] (often shortened to dicots and monocots). Dicotyledons have two [[seed leaf|seed leaves]], flower parts in multiples of four or five, [[vascular tissue]] surrounding the stem and reticulate leaf veins. Monocotyledons have a single seed leaf, flower parts in multiples of three, vascular tissue in bundles and parallel leaf veins. Recent phylogenetic analyses agree, however, that the dicotyledons are paraphyletic to the monocotyledons. There are eight well-established [[clade]]s of living angiosperms:
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Cubas, P., H. Tahiri & C. Pardo. 2001. Karyological and taxonomic notes on ''Cytisus'' Desf. sect. ''Spartopsis'' Dumort. and sect. ''Alburnoides'' DC. (Genisteae, Leguminosae) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco. ''Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society'' 135 (1): 43-50.
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*''[[Amborella]]'' - a single species of shrub from [[New Caledonia]]
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*[[Nymphaeales]] + [[Hydatellaceae]]
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*[[Austrobaileyales]] - about 100 species of [[woody plant]]s from various parts of the world
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*[[Chloranthaceae]] - several dozen species of aromatic plants with toothed leaves
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*''[[Ceratophyllum]]'' - about 6 species of aquatic plants, perhaps most familiar as aquarium plants
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*[[magnoliid]]s - about 9,000 species, characterized by [[trimerous]] flowers, pollen with one pore, and usually branching-veined leaves, containg the [[Magnoliales]], [[Laurales]], [[Canellales]], [[Piperales]] and [[Aristolochiaceae]]
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*[[eudicot]]s - about 175,000 species characterized by 4- or 5-merous flowers, pollen with three pores, and usually branching-veined leaves, containing the majority of the taxa previously included in the dicotyledons
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*[[monocot]]s - about 70,000 species characterized by trimerous flowers, a single [[cotyledon]], pollen with one pore, and usually parallel-veined leaves.
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Cullen, J. M., & D. T. Briese. 2001. Host plant susceptibility to eriophyid mites used for weed biological control. In ''Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress'' (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds.) pp. 342-348. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.
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=== History of classification ===
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Darwin, C. 1859. ''The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life'' 1st ed. John Murray: London. (reprinted 1967. Atheneum: New York; 1968. Penguin Books: London)
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The botanical term "Angiosperm", from the ancient Greek ''αγγειον'' (receptacle) and ''σπερμα'' (seed), was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with [[achene|achenial]] or schizocarpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked. The term and its antonym were maintained by [[Carolus Linnaeus]] with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class [[Didynamia]]. Its use with any approach to its modern scope only became possible after 1827, when [[Robert Brown]] established the existence of truly naked ovules in the [[Cycadophyta|Cycadeae]] and [[Pinophyta|Coniferae]], and applied to them the name "gymnosperms". From that time onwards, so long as these gymnosperms were, as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the term "angiosperm" was used antithetically by botanical writers, with varying scope, as a group-name for other dicotyledonous plants.  
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Dayrat, B., C. Schander & K. A. Angielczyk. 2004. Suggestions for a new species nomenclature. ''Taxon'' 53 (2): 485-491.
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In 1851, [[Wilhelm Friedrich Benedikt Hofmeister|Hofmeister]] discovered the changes occurring in the embryo-sac of flowering plants, and determined the correct relationships of these to the [[Cryptogamia]]. This fixed the position of gymnosperms as a class distinct from dicotyledons, and the term angiosperm then gradually came to be accepted as the suitable designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than gymnosperms, including the classes of dicotyledons and monocotyledons. This is the sense in which the term is used today.
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Denboh, T., T. Ichimura, D. Hendrayanti & A. W. Coleman. 2003. ''Closterium moniliferum-ehrenbergii'' (Charophyceae, Chlorophyta) species complex viewed from the 1506 group I intron and ITS2 of nuclear rDNA. ''Journal of Phycology'' 39: 960-977.
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In most taxonomies, the flowering plants are treated as a coherent group. The most popular descriptive name has been Angiospermae (Angiosperms), with Anthophyta ("flowering plants") a second choice. These names are not linked to any rank. The [[Wettstein system]] and the [[Engler system]] use the name Angiospermae, at the assigned rank of subdivision. The [[Reveal system]] treated flowering plants as subdivision [[Magnoliophytina]] (Frohne & U. Jensen ''ex'' Reveal, Phytologia 79: 70 1996), but later split it to [[Magnoliopsida]], [[Liliopsida]] and [[Rosopsida]]. The [[Takhtajan system]] and [[Cronquist system]] treat this group at the rank of [[division]], leading to the name Magnoliophyta. The [[Dahlgren system]] and [[Thorne system]] treat this group at the rank of class, leading to the name Magnoliopsida. However, the [[APG system]] of 1998 and the [[APG II system]] of 2003 do not treat angiosperms as a formal taxon but rather an informal clade.
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Field, L. H., & G. R. Sandlant. 2001. The gallery-related ecology of New Zealand tree wetas, ''Hemideina femorata'' and ''Hemideina crassidens'' (Orthoptera, Anostostomatidae). In ''The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies'' (L. H. Field, ed.) pp. 243-257. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).
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==Links==
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Freitas, S. de, & N. D. Penny. 2001. The green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) of Brazilian agro-ecosystems. ''Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences'' 52: 245-395.
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[http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Angiosperms&contgroup=Spermatopsida Tree of Life: Angiosperms]
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'''Credits'''
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'''Credits'''
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CKT070123
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Descriptive sections transferred from Wikipedia and edited CKT080513; phylogeny CKT070918.

Latest revision as of 08:14, 28 September 2012

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