Baculitidae

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: '''Systematic Paleontology''' <br>
: '''Systematic Paleontology''' <br>
: Class: [[Cephalopoda]]  <br>
: Class: [[Cephalopoda]]  <br>
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: Superorder: [[Ammonitoidea]]  <br>
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: subclass: [[Ammonoidea]]  <br>
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: Order:  [[Lytocerida]]  <br>
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: Order:  [[Ancylocerida]]  <br>
: Superfamily: [[Turrilitaceae]]  <br>
: Superfamily: [[Turrilitaceae]]  <br>
: Family: <u> Baculitidae</u> <br>
: Family: <u> Baculitidae</u> <br>
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The Baculitidae comprise a group of specialized Lytocerida, included in the Turrilitaceae, that lived during the late Cretaceous from the latest Albian almost to the end of the Maastrichtian at the end of the period, characterized by long straight or gently curved, some moderately expanding, shells that begin with a small coiled portion of generally 1 or 2 whorls at the apex, resembling the earlier, Ordovician nautiloid [[Lituitidae]].  Cross sections may be round or oval, may be more narrowly rounded dorsally than ventrally.  The surface may be smooth or ornamented with flexious striae or ribs, which may enlarge into tubercles along the sides of the venter. The aperture may be oblique, sloped as to open upwardly, or a simply a transverse opening.  Sutures are ammonitic of general lytoceroid form and vary as to their intricacy.  
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The Baculitidae comprise a group of specialized ammonoidea, included in the Turrilitaceae, that lived during the Late Cretaceous from the latest Albian almost to the end of the Maastrichtian which terminates the period. Baculitids are characterized by long straight or gently curved shell, some which are moderately expanding, that begin with a small coiled portion of generally one or wto whorls at the apex, resembling the earlier, Ordovician nautiloid [[Lituitidae]].  Cross sections may be round or oval, may be more narrowly rounded dorsally than ventrally.  The surface may be smooth or ornamented with flexous striae or ribs, which may enlarge into tubercles along the sides of the venter. The aperture may be oblique, sloped as to open upwardly, or a simply a transverse opening.  Sutures are ammonitic of general lytoceroid form and vary as to their intricacy.  
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Early Baculitids from the Upper Albian are rather small and resemble their [[Hammitidae|hammitid]] ancestors except for having become straightened and more smooth and to developed oblique apertures. Little change took place from the Cenomanian through the Coniacian, a period of some 15 Ma. A major change occurred in the Santonian when some species reached several feet (a meter or so) in length. Baculitids obtained their greatest size with the genus ''Baculites'' during the Campainian and Maastrichian with species reaching lengths of 6 ft (2 M), the time at which these specialized cephalopods also reached their greatest, though limited, diversity.   
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The Baculitidae, named by Gill, 1871, apparently branched off of the [[Hamitidae]] in the Late Albian, whose ancestors may be found in the Upper Aptian [[Macroscaphitidae]], which in turn may be derived from the [[Lytoceratidae]].  Early Baculitids from the Upper Albian are rather small and resemble their hammitid ancestors except for having become straightened and more smooth and to have developed oblique apertures. Little change took place from the Cenomanian through the Coniacian, a period of some 15 Ma. A major change occurred in the Santonian when some species reached several feet (a meter or so) in length. Baculitids obtained their greatest size with the genus ''Baculites'' during the Campainian and Maastrichian with species reaching lengths of 6 ft (2 M), the time at which these specialized cephalopods also reached their greatest, though limited, diversity.   
Baculitids have been found in very large numbers that include all stages of development, suggesting they lived in large aggregations on the sea floor.   
Baculitids have been found in very large numbers that include all stages of development, suggesting they lived in large aggregations on the sea floor.   
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The Baculitidae, named by Gill, 1871,  branched off the [[Hamitidae]] in the Late Albian whose ancestors are found in the [[Macroscaphitidae]] in the Upper Aptian, which in turn are derived from the [[Lytoceratidae]]. 
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==Taxonomy==
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Genera in phylogenetic sequence are:
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Baculitid genera included in Arkell et al, 1957, in the American Treatise Part L, in temporal sequence.
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--as included in the first edition of the Treatise, 1957--
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''Lechites''; U Alb -L Cenom. <br>
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:''Lechites'' Nowak, 1908; U Alb -L Cenom. Eu -Mex <br>
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''Sciponoceras''; U Alb - U Turon. <br>
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:''Sciponoceras'' Hyatt, 1894, U Alb - U Turon.  fairly wide spread.<br>
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''Baculites'';  U Turon - Maastr. <br>
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:''Baculites'' Lamark, 1799;  U Turon - Maastr.  world wide. <br>
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''Pseudobaculites''; Coni. <br>
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:''Pseudobaculites'' Cobban, 1952; Coni Wyo, Utah.<br>
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''Euhomiloceras''; Sant- Camp. <br>
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:''Euhomiloceras'' Spath,  1926,  Sant- Camp France. <br>
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''Eubaculites''; Maastr. <br>
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:''Eubaculites''Spath, 1926,  Maastr. Madag to Chile and Japan.
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''Fresvillia'' Kennedy 1986, from the Upper Maastrichtian of France and ''Tuberosciponoceras'' Medina and Riccardi 2007, from the Upper Albian of Argentina have been added since.  
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Genera added since.
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''Tuberosciponoceras''; U Alb, <br>
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''Fresvillia''; U Maastr
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Tentative inclusions.
''Boehmoceras'', a Santonian [[Phlycticeratidae|phlycticeratid]] and ''Hyphantoceras'', a Turonian- Santonian [[Nostoceratidae|nostoceratid]] have been included in some classifications.  
''Boehmoceras'', a Santonian [[Phlycticeratidae|phlycticeratid]] and ''Hyphantoceras'', a Turonian- Santonian [[Nostoceratidae|nostoceratid]] have been included in some classifications.  
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==R''eferences''==
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==''References''==
* Arkell et al, 1957.  Mesozoic Ammonoidea; Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part L. Geological Soc. of America and Univ. Kansas Press.  
* Arkell et al, 1957.  Mesozoic Ammonoidea; Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part L. Geological Soc. of America and Univ. Kansas Press.  
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CREDITS: [[User:John M|JM]] 7/14/11
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CREDITS: [[User:John M|JM]] 7/14/11, 7/4/12

Latest revision as of 21:41, 4 July 2012

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