Brachiopoda

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[[Trochozoa|<==]]Brachiopoda [Brachiozoa, Ecardines, Inarticulata, Phoronozoa, Phorozoa]
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Brachiopods are exclusively marine bivalved animals characterized by a ciliated lophophore (an arm-like organ for feeding and respiration)and a pair of shells, or valves, each laterally symmetrical, but neither the mirror image of the other.
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    |  ''i. s.'': ''Orthotichia chekiangensis''
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    |        ''Tyloplecta richthofeni''
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    |        ''Oldhamina anshusuensis''
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    |        ''Orthotetina ruber''
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    |        ''Platystrophia''
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    |        ''Eocoelia''
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    |          |--''E. curtisi''
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    |          |--''E. hemisphaerica''
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    |          `--''E. intermedia''
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    |        ''Dolerorthis'' Schuchert & Cooper 1931
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    |        ''Eospirifer dasifiliformis'' Fu 1982
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    |        ''Costistricklandia''
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    |        ''Glottidia pyramidata''
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    |        ''Araratella''
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    |        ''Syringothyris''
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    |          |--''S. altaiensis''
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    |          |--''S. halli''
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    |          `--''S. subcuspidatus''
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    |        ''Spinocarinifera arcuata''
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    |        ''Tylothyris laminosa''
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    |        ''Eumetria verneuiliana''
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    |        ''Buxtonia dengisi''
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    |        ''Cyrtina hibernica''
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    |        ''Echinoconchella elegans''
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    |        ''Fluctuaria undata''
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    |        ''Gigantoproductus superba''
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    |        ''Striatifera striata''
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    |        ''Latiproductus latissima''
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    |        *''Bruntonites mellingeni''
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    |        ''Loriolithyris russillensis''
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    |        ''Frenulina sanguinolenta''
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    |        ''Thysanotos siluricus''
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    |        ''Leptembolon lingulaeformis''
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    |        ''Spanodonta hoskingiae''
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    |        ''Protochonetes culleni''
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    |        ''Spinella yassensis'' [=''Spirifer yassensis'']
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    |        ''Cymostrophia''
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    |        ''Mutationella''
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    |        ''Mauispirifer''
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    |        ''Malurostrophia''
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    |        ''Parachonetes macrostriatus''
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    |        ''Quadrithyrina''
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    |        ''Spinulicosta''
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    |        ''Cyrtinopsis undosus''
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    |          |--''C. u. undosus''
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    |          `--''C. u. maiderensis''
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    |        ''Septathyris davousti''
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    |        ''Euryspirifer pellicoi''
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    |        ''Laqueus rubellus''
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    |        ''Terebratulina''
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    |          |--''T. caputserpentis''
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    |          `--''T. retusa''
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    |        ''Schuchertella subplana'' Poulsen 1943
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    |        ''Altaethyrella'' Severgina 1978
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    |        ''Ovalospira'' Fu 1982
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    |        ''Leptellina'' Ulrich & Cooper 1936
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    |        ''Pectenospira'' Popov, Nikitin & Sokiran 1999
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    |        ''Meifodia'' Williams 1951
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    |        ''Acrospirifer tonkinensis'' (Mansuy 1908)
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    |        ''Jonesea grayi''
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    |        ''Tecnocyrtina missouriensis''
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    |        Ambocoeliidae [Ambocoelioidea]
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    |          |--''Metaplasia'' Hall & Clarke 1893
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    |          |--''Spinoplasia''
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    |          `--''Plicoplasia''
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    |        ''Muhuathyris circularis'' Sun, Ma ''et al.'' 2004
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    |        ''Neocrania anomala''
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    |        ''Linguatula lingua''
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    |--''Mickwitzia''
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    `--+--+--[[Rhynchonelliformea]]
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      |  `--''Trimerella'' Billings 1862 [Craniiformea, Trimerellida, Trimerellidae]
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      |      `--''T. attenuata'' Gorjansky 1972
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      `--+--[[Linguliformea]]
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          `--Phoronida
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              |--''Phoronopsis''
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              `--''Phoronis''
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                    |--''P. architecta''
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                    |--''P. australis''
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                    `--''P. vancouverensis''
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of genus indicated
 
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==Primary brachiopod taxa==
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[[Trochozoa|<==]]Brachiopoda
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    |-+--[[Rhynchonelliformea]]
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    `--+--[[Linguliformea]]
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The Rhynchonelliformea are the Articulata of older classifications, characterized by shells made of calcium carbonate that hinge (articulate) with a tooth and socket arrangement. The Linguliformea, likewise are the Inarticulata, characterized by the genus ''Lingula'', in which the valves are controlled by a complex set of muscles. 
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==Shells==         
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Articulate brachiopod shells, or valves, are referred to as brachial and pedicle. The brachial valve, which by convention is dorsal and also commonly smaller, holds the brachidea, a pair of hard-part structures that support the visceral lophophore. The pedicle valve, by convention ventral, contains the attachment of the pedicle, a fleshy stalk by which the animal is attached to the substrate. The respective positions turn out in nature, during life, to be the opposite. The brachial valves turns out to be really ventral and the pedicle valve, dorsal. So much for a 50-50 change of getting it right in the first place.
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=== shell composition===
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Inarticulate brachiopods, those in which the two valves are not hinged mostly have chitinophosphatic shells composed mostly of calcium phosphate and chitinous organic matter. Shells of articulate brachiopods, those in which the two valves are hinged with a tooth and socket arrangement, are composed almost exclusively of calcium carbonate
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In articulate brachiopods the shells have two structurally distinct layers, a relatively thick inner layer composed of obliquely inclined calcaeous fibers of prisms and a relatively thin finly laminated outer layer.  Shells are of three types,  impunctate, punctate, and pseudopunctate.
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Impuncate shells are solid throughout. Punctate shells have fine tubes, or punctae, that extend through the inner fibrous layer into the lamellar layer, each connecting to the surface by several very fine tubules. Pseudopunctate shells have calcarious rod-like structures within the fibrous layer that dissolve more readily, giving the appearance of punctae.
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== References ==
== References ==
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Moore, Lalicker, and Fischer, 1952; ''Invertebrate Fossils''; ch 6. Brachiopoda,(Moore). McGraw - Hill publishers.
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Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H, Brachipoda. Geological Society of America (GSA)
Barale, G., & M. Ouaja. 2002. La biodiversité végétale des gisements d’âge Jurassique supérieur-Crétacé inférieur de Merbah El Asfer (Sud-Tunisien). ''Cretaceous Research'' 23: 707-737.
Barale, G., & M. Ouaja. 2002. La biodiversité végétale des gisements d’âge Jurassique supérieur-Crétacé inférieur de Merbah El Asfer (Sud-Tunisien). ''Cretaceous Research'' 23: 707-737.

Revision as of 00:57, 30 August 2013

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