Cephalopoda

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(Systematics: clarification and definition of nautiliods.)
(added Cephalopod based References, changed Dentrogram sources to further non-cpehalopod dendrogram sources, moved exobilolgy to the bottom)
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====Subclass: Palcephalopoda====
====Subclass: Palcephalopoda====
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The palcephalopoda includes most of the Nautiloidea as originally defined but leaves out the Orthocerida which are combined with the Bactritida, Ammonoidea, and coleoids in the Neocephalopoda. Palcephalopods characteristically have cap-shaped apeces with a cicatrix ore something similar and are retrosiphonte, meaning the septal necks in the siphuncle point to the rear. The apex in neocephalopoda is bulbous and lacks a cicatrix. The only living palcephalopods are ''Nautilus'' and ''Allonautilus''. Both are tetrabranchiate (posses 4 gills), have radula with 9 teeth and 4 marginalia ("Lateradulata") and posses a large number of sicky finger-like arms that lack suckers. Reproduction is what is known as K-selected, with a few large yolk-rich eggs produced a number of times from which large well developed offspring come. Adults are long-lived.  
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The palcephalopoda includes most of the Nautiloidea as originally defined but leaves out the Orthocerida which are combined with the Bactritida, Ammonoidea, and coleoids in the Neocephalopoda. Palcephalopods characteristically have cap-shaped apeces with a cicatrix ore something similar and are retrosiphonte, meaning the septal necks in the siphuncle point to the rear. The apex in neocephalopoda is bulbous and lacks a cicatrix. The only living palcephalopods are ''Nautilus'' and ''Allonautilus''. Both are tetrabranchiate (posses 4 gills), have radula with 9 teeth and 4 marginalia ("Lateradulata") and posses a large number of sticky finger-like arms that lack suckers. Reproduction is what is known as K-selected, with a few large yolk-rich eggs produced a number of times from which large well developed offspring come. Adults are long-lived.  
To what extent these features and characters can be extrapolated into the distant past is unknown. There is some question as to whether the palcephalopoda/neocephalopoda distinction really works with Paleozoic nautlloids other that the distinction between different embryonic forms.  
To what extent these features and characters can be extrapolated into the distant past is unknown. There is some question as to whether the palcephalopoda/neocephalopoda distinction really works with Paleozoic nautlloids other that the distinction between different embryonic forms.  
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See also [[Cephalopoda incertae sedis]]
See also [[Cephalopoda incertae sedis]]
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==Exobiology==
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== Cephalopod based References ==
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Serious scientists have suggested that [http://speculativeevolution.wikia.com/wiki/Intelligent_aliens intelligent aliens] if they exist may resemble cephalopods and may not be like vertibrates. [http://www.alientimes.org/Main/AlienScientistAlienBodyLanguage Alien Scientist: Alien Body Language]
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* Dzik, J. 2002. Emergence and collapse of the Frasnian conodont and ammonoid communities in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. ''Acta Palaeontologica Polonica'' 47: 565-650.
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* Klug, C., & D. Korn. 2002. Occluded umbilicus in the Pinacitinae (Devonian) and its palaeoecological implications. ''Palaeontology'' 45 (5): 917-931.
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* Poulton, T. P. 1987. Zonation and correlation of Middle Boreal Bathonian to Lower Callovian (Jurassic) ammonites, Salmon Cache Canyon, Porcupine River, northern Yukon. ''Geological Survey of Canada – Bulletin'' 358: 1-155.
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* Spaeth, C. 1998. Cretaceous cephalopods. ''Lethaia'' 31: 28.
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* Teichert,Curt 1988. "Main Features of Cephalopod Evolution", pp.19-20, in ''The Mollusca'' vol.12, ''Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods'', ed. by M.R. Clarke & E.R. Trueman, Academic Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
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* Zhou, Z., & M. Liengjarern. 2004. Lower Permian perrinitid ammonoid faunas from Thailand. ''Journal of Paleontology'' 78: 317-339.
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== Dendrogram Sources ==
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=== further, non-cephalopod Dendrogram Sources ===
Branstetter, S. 2002. Smooth dogfishes. Family Triakidae. In ''Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine'' (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds.) 3rd ed. pp. 37-38. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.
Branstetter, S. 2002. Smooth dogfishes. Family Triakidae. In ''Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine'' (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds.) 3rd ed. pp. 37-38. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.
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Delsate, D., & L. Candoni. 2001. Description de nouveaux morphotypes dentaires de Batomorphii toarciens (Jurassique inférieur) du Bassin de Paris: Archaeobatidae nov. fam. ''Bull. Soc. Nat. Luxemb.'' 102: 131-143.
Delsate, D., & L. Candoni. 2001. Description de nouveaux morphotypes dentaires de Batomorphii toarciens (Jurassique inférieur) du Bassin de Paris: Archaeobatidae nov. fam. ''Bull. Soc. Nat. Luxemb.'' 102: 131-143.
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Dzik, J. 2002. Emergence and collapse of the Frasnian conodont and ammonoid communities in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. ''Acta Palaeontologica Polonica'' 47: 565-650.
 
Girard, C., E. Robin, R. Rocchia, L. Froget & R. Feist. 1997. Search for impact remains at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in the stratotype area, southern France. ''Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology'' 132: 391-397.
Girard, C., E. Robin, R. Rocchia, L. Froget & R. Feist. 1997. Search for impact remains at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in the stratotype area, southern France. ''Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology'' 132: 391-397.
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Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Smelts. Family Osmeridae. In ''Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine'' (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds.) 3rd ed. pp. 162-170. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.
Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Smelts. Family Osmeridae. In ''Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine'' (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds.) 3rd ed. pp. 162-170. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.
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Klug, C., & D. Korn. 2002. Occluded umbilicus in the Pinacitinae (Devonian) and its palaeoecological implications. ''Palaeontology'' 45 (5): 917-931.
 
Lane, N. G., C. G. Maples & J. A. Waters. 2001. Revision of Late Devonian (Famennian) and some Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian) crinoids and blastoids from the type Devonian area of north Devon. ''Palaeontology'' 44 (6): 1043-1080.
Lane, N. G., C. G. Maples & J. A. Waters. 2001. Revision of Late Devonian (Famennian) and some Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian) crinoids and blastoids from the type Devonian area of north Devon. ''Palaeontology'' 44 (6): 1043-1080.
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Pan, H.-Z., & D. H. Erwin. 2002. Gastropods from the Permian of Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces, south China. ''Journal of Paleontology'' 76 (Memoir 56): 1-49.
Pan, H.-Z., & D. H. Erwin. 2002. Gastropods from the Permian of Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces, south China. ''Journal of Paleontology'' 76 (Memoir 56): 1-49.
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Poulton, T. P. 1987. Zonation and correlation of Middle Boreal Bathonian to Lower Callovian (Jurassic) ammonites, Salmon Cache Canyon, Porcupine River, northern Yukon. ''Geological Survey of Canada – Bulletin'' 358: 1-155.
 
Prothero, D. R. 1998. ''Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology''. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.
Prothero, D. R. 1998. ''Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology''. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.
Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early – Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. ''Cretaceous Research'' 23: 739-760.
Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early – Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. ''Cretaceous Research'' 23: 739-760.
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Spaeth, C. 1998. Cretaceous cephalopods. ''Lethaia'' 31: 28.
 
Stiller, F., & Chen J. 2004. ''Eophilobryoidella sinoanisica'' new genus and species, an early philobryid bivalve from the Upper Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Qingyan, southwestern China. ''Journal of Paleontology'' 78 (2): 418-419.
Stiller, F., & Chen J. 2004. ''Eophilobryoidella sinoanisica'' new genus and species, an early philobryid bivalve from the Upper Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Qingyan, southwestern China. ''Journal of Paleontology'' 78 (2): 418-419.
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Wellnhofer, P. 2003. A Late Triassic pterosaur from the Northern Calcareous Alps (Tyrol, Austria). In ''Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs'' (E. Buffetaut & J.-M. Mazin, eds.) ''Geological Society Special Publications'' 217: 5-22. The Geological Society: London.
Wellnhofer, P. 2003. A Late Triassic pterosaur from the Northern Calcareous Alps (Tyrol, Austria). In ''Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs'' (E. Buffetaut & J.-M. Mazin, eds.) ''Geological Society Special Publications'' 217: 5-22. The Geological Society: London.
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Zhou, Z., & M. Liengjarern. 2004. Lower Permian perrinitid ammonoid faunas from Thailand. ''Journal of Paleontology'' 78: 317-339.
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==Exobiology==
 +
Serious scientists have suggested that [http://speculativeevolution.wikia.com/wiki/Intelligent_aliens intelligent aliens] if they exist may resemble cephalopods and may not be like vertibrates. [http://www.alientimes.org/Main/AlienScientistAlienBodyLanguage Alien Scientist: Alien Body Language]
'''Credits'''   
'''Credits'''   
text © M. Alan Kazlev 1998-2002; taxonomy and references CKT071126
text © M. Alan Kazlev 1998-2002; taxonomy and references CKT071126

Revision as of 14:43, 2 September 2009

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