Cephalopoda

From Palaeos.org

Jump to: navigation, search
(Exobiology)
(Biology: Pachydiscus seppenradensis is Parapuzosia seppenradensis)
 
Line 1: Line 1:
-
[[Cyrtosoma|CYRTOSOMA]]
+
'''Cephalopods''' (Class Cephalopoda)are exclusively marine mollusks (Phyllum [[Mollusca]]) with well developed prehensile grasping appediges the encircle the mouth and protrude from a well defined head, and which have a well developed nervous system. All are carnivorous. Other mollusks include [[Gastropoda|gastropods]], snails, [[bivalvia|pelecypods]], clams and other bivalves, and [[Scaphopoda|scaphopods]], tusk shells.   
-
|--+--[[Scaphopoda|SCAPHOPODA]]
+
-
|  `--'''CEPHALOPODA'''
+
-
|    |--[[Plectronocerida]]
+
-
|    `--+--[[Ellesmerocerida]]
+
-
|       |--[[Endocerida]]
+
-
|        |--[[Actinocerida]]
+
-
|       |--[[Pseudorthocerida]]
+
-
|        |--[[Discosorida]]
+
-
|       `--+--[[Nautiloidea|NAUTILOIDEA]]
+
-
|          `--[[Neocephalopoda|NEOCEPHALOPODA]]
+
-
|              |--[[Ammonoidea]]
+
-
|              `--[[Coleoidea|COLEOIDEA]]
+
-
|                |--[[Decapodiformes|DECAPODIFORMES]]
+
-
|                `--[[Vampyropoda|VAMPYROPODA]]
+
-
`--[[Gastropoda]]
+
==Biology==
==Biology==
-
The name Cephalopoda literally means "head feet" and refers to the fact that these animals have a [[foot]] (actually a cluster of tentacles) directly abutting their head.  The group includes [[Sepioidea|cuttlefish]], [[Octopoda|octopods]], [[Teuthoidea|squid]], the [[Nautilus|pearly nautilus]], and a large number of ancient (mostly [[Paleozoic]] and [[Mesozoic]]) forms.  All are active marine predators (although some early types were drifters), able to swim swiftly, and easily competing with fish in the marine habitat.  There are 650 living species, but more than 7,500 fossil forms are known (and as in all cases like this this number is obviously a gross underestimate of the real number of cephalopod species that have ever lived through the [[Phanerozoic]] time).  Like fish they are equipped with highly developed eyes and other sense organs, include both active swimmers and bottom-dwellers, and in many cases have a streamlined body for more efficient locomotion.  Swimming is by rapidly expelling water from the [[mantle cavity]].  The water is forced out through a funnel or [[siphon]] - the [[hyponome]] - actually a tube-like flap of modified foot, thus driving the animal in the opposite direction.  This is the key to the so-called "jet-propulsion" of these animals   The funnel is highly maneuverable and can be directed in any direction, allowing motion backwards or forwards.  However, the fastest movement is backward escape swimming, with powerful contractions of the mantle ejecting water through the forward facing funnel.  A cloud of "ink" can also be ejected as a sort of underwater smoke screen to hide the fleeing animal.
+
The name Cephalopoda literally means "head feet" which refers to the cluster of [[arm]]s and/or [[tentacle]]s that project forward from the head, surrounding the mouth.  The group includes living [[Coleoidea|coleoids]] (squid, octopods, and cuttlefish) and ''[[Nautilus]]'', and a large number of ancient (mostly [[Paleozoic]] and [[Mesozoic]]) forms.  All are active marine predators (although some early types were drifters), able to swim swiftly, and easily competing with fish in the marine habitat.  There are 650 living species, but more than 7,500 fossil forms are known (and as in all cases like this this number is obviously a gross underestimate of the real number of cephalopod species that have ever lived through the [[Phanerozoic]] time).  Like fish they are equipped with highly developed eyes and other sense organs, include both active swimmers and bottom-dwellers, and in many cases have a streamlined body for more efficient locomotion.  Swimming is by rapidly expelling water from the [[mantle cavity]].  The water is forced out through a funnel or [[siphon]], knows as the hyponome, thus driving the animal in the opposite direction.  This is the key to the so-called "jet-propulsion" of these animals. The funnel is highly maneuverable and can be directed in almost any direction, allowing motion backwards or forwards.  However, the fastest movement is backward escape swimming, with powerful contractions of the mantle ejecting water through the forward facing funnel.  A cloud of "ink" can also be ejected as a sort of underwater smoke screen to hide the fleeing animal.
-
All cephalopods are carnivorous, feeding primarily on fish, other [[Mollusca|mollusks]], [[Crustacea]], and worms.  The head projects into a crown of prehensile tentacles - ranging from 8 in the octopus to 80 or 90 in the living nautilus. These tentacles are actually a specialized form of the standard molluscan foot, and used for grasping prey. Once the prey is snared it is bitten with strong beak-like jaws and pulled into the mouth by the [[radula]].
+
All cephalopods are carnivorous, feeding primarily on fish, other [[Mollusca|mollusks]], [[Crustacea|crustaceans]], and worms.  The head projects into a crown of prehensile arms ranging from 8 in octopus to about 90 in the living nautilus. Cephalopod arms, or tentacles, and used for grasping prey, are a specialized development of the basic molluscan foot. Once the prey is snared it is bitten with strong beak-like jaws and pulled into the mouth by the [[radula]].
-
Cephalopods are quite large by molluscan standards (most species being between 6 and 70 cm including tentacles), with the giants of the group - such as the modern day ''[[Architeuthis]]'', the giant squid, with a body length (including tentacles) of up to 16 meters, the Ordovician [[Endocerida|endocerid]] [[Nautiloidea|nautiloid]] ''[[Cameroceras]]'', with a straight shell up to 10 metres in length, and the Cretaceous [[Ammonoidea|ammonoid]] ''[[Pachydiscus seppenradensis]]'', with a coiled shell 3 metres in diameter - the largest invertebrates ever to live, with weights of one to two tons.  Such giant cephalopods play or played a similar ecological role of top predator to that of [[Devonian]] [[Arthrodira|arthrodire]] [[Placodermi|placoderms]], [[Mesozoic]] [[pliosaur]]s and [[Cenozoic]] [[Odontoceti|toothed whales]].
+
Cephalopods are quite large by molluscan standards (most species being between 6 and 70 cm including tentacles), with the giants of the group - such as the modern day ''[[Architeuthis]]'', the giant squid, with a body length (including tentacles) of up to 20 meters, the Ordovician orthoconic [[Endocerida|endocerid]] ''[[Cameroceras]]'', with a straight shell up to 10 metres in length, and the Cretaceous [[Ammonoidea|ammonoid]] ''[[Parapuzosia seppenradensis]]'', with a coiled shell 3 metres in diameter - the largest invertebrates ever to live, with weights of one to two tons.  Such giant cephalopods play or played a similar ecological role of top predator to that of Devonian [[Arthrodira]], Mesozoic [[pliosaur]]s, and Cenozoic [[Odontoceti|toothed whales]].
-
Cephalopods have a highly developed nervous system, unequalled among the invertebrates, and correlated with locomotor dexterity and carnivorous lifestyle (predators generally always have larger brains than prey animals).  There is a high level of [[cephalization]] (development and concentration of sensory and neural centers in the head).  The nerve [[ganglion|ganglia]] are concentrated and more or less fused to form a brain that encircles the [[esophagus]]. A bundle of giant nerve fibres tied to the [[mantle]] give them very rapid reflexes.  They are visual creatures, changing colour to express mood.  The eyes of the [[Coleoidea]] are very elaborate, with a [[retina]]l structure remarkably like that found in vertebrates.  The eye of the giant squid is the largest of any animal - 40 cm across. Nautiloids have smaller and more primitive eyes.
+
Cephalopods have a highly developed nervous system, unequalled among the invertebrates, and correlated with locomotor dexterity and carnivorous lifestyle (predators generally always have larger brains than prey animals).  There is a high level of cephalization (development and concentration of sensory and neural centers in the head).  The nerve ganglia are concentrated and more or less fused to form a brain that encircles the esophagus. A bundle of giant nerve fibres tied to the [[mantle]] give them very rapid reflexes.  They are visual creatures, changing colour to express mood.  The eyes of the [[Coleoidea]] are very elaborate, with a retinal structure remarkably like that found in vertebrates.  The eye of the giant squid is the largest of any animal - 40 cm across. Nautiloids have smaller and more primitive eyes.
As with vertebrates, the brain is partitioned into different areas that control particular functions.  For example, the brain centres for both forward swimming and closing of the suckers are located in the cerebral ganglia.  These animals are most intelligent and highly evolved of the mollusks, indeed they are the most intelligent of all the invertebrates, exhibiting complex patterns of behavior.  Octopods can easily be trained to distinguish between classes of objects.  See [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalopod_intelligence Cephalopod intelligence]
As with vertebrates, the brain is partitioned into different areas that control particular functions.  For example, the brain centres for both forward swimming and closing of the suckers are located in the cerebral ganglia.  These animals are most intelligent and highly evolved of the mollusks, indeed they are the most intelligent of all the invertebrates, exhibiting complex patterns of behavior.  Octopods can easily be trained to distinguish between classes of objects.  See [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalopod_intelligence Cephalopod intelligence]
-
==Evolutionary History==
+
==Class Cephalopoda==  
-
The cephalopods first appeared in the late [[Cambrian]].  The first forms had gently curved shells.  During the [[Ordovician]] the group underwent an astonishing evolutionary radiation, possibly due to the new ecological niches made possible by the extinction of [[Anomalocarida|anomalocarids]] at the end of the Cambrian.  Some eight new orders appeared.  There was tremendous diversity among them.  Some had long straight shells, short straight ones, curved, lightly coiled, and tightly coiled ones evolved.  The internal structure of the shell differed greatly as well, mostly in the structure of the [[siphuncle]].  Most were probably relatively slow movers, at least compared to today's forms.  The largest ones had huge straight shells that reached 3 to 5 or even 10 metres in length.  All these early forms are classed under the [[paraphyletic]] and probably [[artificial taxon]] Nautiloidea.
+
====Basic Divisions====
-
The nautiloid cephalopods remained unchallenged through the Ordovician and [[Silurian]], finally giving way to the large predatory fish of the late Devonian.  About this time the ammonoids began to take over from the nautiloids.  The ammonoids are rare in the early Devonian, but by the end of the period and the beginning of the [[Carboniferous]] they increase greatly in diversity.  During this time, all but two the remaining nautiloid orders die out.  The Coleoidea meanwhile make their first appearance in the [[Late Mississippian]] (middle Carboniferous) but remain rare.
+
*Phyllum Mollusca
-
+
** Class Cephalopoda
-
The end-Permian extinction exterminated all but a single family of ammonoids.  But these adaptable mollusks recovered strongly as the Mesozoic dawned, and the [[Ceratitida|ceratite]] lineage appeared with a great evolutionary radiation during the [[Triassic]]. So successful were these creatures that the Triassic period has been called "The Age of ''[[Ceratites]]''". Over 80 families are known from this time.  Another mass extinction at the end of the Triassic saw the demise of the ceratites, along with the last remaining straight-shelled nautiloids (the [[Pseudorthocerida|pseudorthocerids]]).  At this time new groups of ammonoids with much more complex sutures ("[[ammonite]]s" in the strict sense) took over.
+
*** Subclass [[Nautiloidea]]
 +
*** Subclass [[ Ammonoidea]]      
 +
*** Subclass [[ Coleoidea]]
-
As well as ammonites, the squid-like [[Belemnitida|belemnites]], representing the Coleoidea, also underwent a huge evolutionary radiation as the [[Jurassic]] dawned.  The first representatives of modern coleoid groups like octopus and squid were other groups of cephalopods that appeared during the Jurassic, but being soft-bodied and only very rarely preserved it is not certain from the fossil record how common they wereBut there is no denying that ammonoids, belemnoids, and proto-modern-style coleoids all formed a very significant part of the Jurassic and Cretaceous nektonic marine ecosystems. The ammonoids and belemnoids were to remain highly successful until the end of the [[Cretaceous]], where the same extinction event that killed off the dinosaurs and the other Mesozoic [[megafauna]] also exterminated the Ammonoids.  A few belemnoids straggled on until the Eocene, but they were now heavily out-competed by the modern Coleoidea (octopus, squid, cuttlefish, etc).
+
Most classification divide the Cephalopoda in the three subclasses as shown. Nautiloids are also known as Palcephalopoda, a term which is applied to most but not all members of the subclassAmmonoids and Coleoids and a few nautiloides come under the term Neocephalopoda. Both terms are based on the morphology and biology of living cephalopods, Palcephalopoda for the presumed primitive ''Nautilus'' and ''Allonautilus'', representing the nautilids and Neocephalopoda for the derived and presumed advanced coleoids.                  
-
The Coleoidea remain an important and remarkably successful group of marine invertebrates to this day.  Meanwhile, only a few species of pearly nautilus continue as the last survivors of the once important Nautiloidea.
+
====Systematics====
-
==Systematics==
+
The class Cephalopoda has been traditionally divided into three subclasses on the basis  of shell structure, or two subclasses on the basis of gills and other soft parts. Both shown here:
-
The class Cephalopoda has been traditionally divided into three subclasses on the basis  of shell structure, or two subclasses on the basis of gills and other soft parts. As shown here:
+
>Shell based classification, used exclusively in paleontology, with three basic subclasses.
-
'''Tetrabranchia''': four gills, primitive forms, external shell - Nautiloidea
+
<u>Nautiloidea</u> -- includes primitive forms, all have an external shell and a retrosiphonate siphuncle; represented by modern, tetrabranchiate ''Nautilus'' and  ''Allonautilus''.
-
'''Ammonoidea'''
+
<u>Ammonoidea</u> -- evolved forms with an external shell and typically a prosiphonate siphuncle; derived from the Nautilioidea but closely related biologically to the dibranchiate coleoids. Became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous.
-
'''Dibranchiata''': two gills, advanced forms, reduced or absent shell - Coleoidea
+
<u>Coleoidea</u> -- shell-less forms and those with an internal vestigial shell represented by living octopods, cuttlefish, squid,and ''Spirula'', all dibranchite. Includes  belemnites and other extinct forms.
-
The trouble with this scheme is that it is impossible to know from the fossil shells alone whether all the extinct forms had two or four gills, or anything really much about their soft body structure.  Moreover just from shell structure alone it became obvious that the simplistic three-fold classification was wanting.  Certainly the Nautiloidea appear to be not a single subclass but a very amorphous, paraphyletic group, so much so that the term Nautiloidea now really means "all cephalopods that are not ammonoids or coleoids".
+
>>Anatomical (gill) based classification, used in cephalopod biology.
-
Thus, while there is some agreement regarding recent cephalopods, the classification of the various extinct forms is very uncertain, precisely due to this fact that (with one or two rare exceptions known from the Devonian, and a Jurassic ammonite that preserved muscle attachment scars) the soft body parts are not known.  The following list basically follows Curt Teichert "Main Features of Cephalopod Evolution", pp.19-20, in ''The Mollusca'' vol.12, ''Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods'', ed. by M.R. Clarke & E.R. Trueman, Academic Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988, except that (a) Teichert's two Subclasses [[Endoceratoidea]] and [[Actinoceratoidea]] have been discarded, since the two orders [[Endocerida]] and the [[Actinocerida]] are probably not so distinct from their contemporaries as to justify such a high taxonomic ranking; and (b) I have incorporated it with the [[Palcephalopoda]]/[[Neocephalopoda]] Hypothesis.
+
<u>Tetrabranchiata</u>-- forms with four gills (2 pairs), represented by ''Nautilus'', thought to be primitive. The Palcephalopoda.
-
===Class Cephalopoda===
+
<u>Dibranchiata</u>-- forms with two gills, considered advanced. Equivalent to the Coleoidea, possibly the Ammonoidea and may be even some Nautilodea
-
 
+
-
====Subclass: Palcephalopoda====
+
-
Mostly equivalent to the old term "Nautiloidea".  Reproduction strategy mostly [[K-selected]] with a few well-developed large offspring and long-lived adults. Yolk-rich development (fewer larger eggs).  Radula with 9 teeth and 4 marginalia ("Lateradulata").  Four gills.  Early forms probably had ten arms but later many more arms developed. The arms lack adhesive suckers.  The [[phragmocone]] is well developed and large, originally slightly curved with the siphuncle was situated between the center and the ventral surface. Siphuncle generally large with internal deposits, with many specialized forms developed that can be distinguished according to the structure of the siphuncle
+
The trouble with the anatomical scheme is that it is impossible to know from shell structure alone alone whether extinct forms had two or four gills, or anything really much about their soft body anatomy. From this it is apparent that the two-fold anatomical classification is inadequate except in modern forms.  
-
'''Infraclass unnamed''' ("Ellesmeroceroidea"? or several infraclasses?)
+
The Subclass Nautiloidea forms a large and diverse, although paraphyletic, group, divisible into phyllogenetically defined superorders.  All nautiloids are united by the fact they have simple, adorally concave septa, retrosiphonate septal necks, sutures that are never elaborate, and are descended from a common ancestor, ''Plectronoceras'' They are more than simply cephalopods that are neither ammonoids or coleoids.
-
  Order [[Plectronocerida]] Flower, 1964
+
-
  Order [[Yanhecerida]] Chen & Qi, 1979 (or included in Plectronocerida or Ellesmerocerida?)
+
-
  Order [[Protactinocerida]] Chen & Qi, 1979 (or included in Plectronocerida or Ellesmerocerida?)
+
-
  Order [[Ellesmerocerida]] Flower, 1950
+
-
  Order [[Endocerida]] Teichert, 1933
+
-
  Order [[Intejocerida]] Balashov, 1960 (or included in Endocerida?)
+
-
  Order [[Discosorida]] Flower, 1950
+
-
  Order [[Actinocerida]] Teichert, 1933
+
-
  Order [[Pseudorthocerida]]
+
-
'''Infraclass Nautiloidea''' Agassiz, 1947 (= Nautiloidea "sensu stricto")
+
While there is general agreement regarding classification of recent cephalopods, mostly coleoids, based on soft part anatomical features, classification of extinct fossil forms based on such criteria is impossible other than for a few inferences that night be drawn from preserved muscle attachment scars, preserved radula, tentacle imprints, and isolated body impressions. Shell based features on the other hand provide the basis for a reliable, phylogenetically plausible  and generally accepted classification of extinct forms. 
-
  Order [[Tarphycerida]] Flower, 1950
+
-
    Suborder [[Tarphycerina]] Flower, 1950
+
-
    Suborder [[Barrandeocerina]] Flower
+
-
  Order [[Oncocerida]] Flower, 1950
+
-
  Order [[Nautilida]] Agassiz, 1847
+
-
====Subclass: Neocephalopoda====
+
'''Palcephalopoda-Neocephalopoda'''
-
Evolved from Palcephalopoda.  Includes a number of lineages with reduced internal shells, and even some (e.g. octopoids and their relatives) that discarded their shell altogether. Radula with seven teeth and two marginalia per row ("Angusteradulata").  Reproduction mostly strategy [[r-selected]] with many small [[plankton]]ic offspring, although some advanced forms (e.g. Octopoda) K-selected with yolk-rich development. Mostly ten arms, which generally possess hooks (belemnites) or adhesive suckers (advanced Coloidea). Siphuncle (in those types that retain their shell) thin and empty.  Additional layers on outside of shell. Phragmocone (the shell) originally straight with the siphuncle situated at or near the center.  Later the position of the siphuncle shifted to the ventral surface, ([[Bactritida]]), the shell became coiled (Ammonoidea), internal or reduced or absent (Coleoidea). Most extinct forms presumably (like recent forms) with only two gills.
+
The <u>Palcephalopoda-Neocephalopoda</u> distinction is based on essential differences between the living nautiloid genera, ''Nautilus'' and ''Allonautilus'', and the huge variety of living coleoids. Living nautiloides are tetrabranchiate (have 4 gills in 2 pairs), are lateradulate (13 elements per radular row), and produce multiple batches of well develovoped offspring from large yolk-rich eggs. The have an external shell, retained from their ancestors but have mutliple finger-like protractable tentacles, probably a derived character. Also their eyes have no lens but operate like a pin-hole camera, again apparently primitive, Coleoids are dibranchiate (have 2 gills), are angusteradulate (9 elements per radular row) and in general produce a single batch of numerous planctonic offspring before dying. They lack an external shell, a obvious derived character but have 8 or 10 muscular suckered and/or hooked tentacles which seems to be a retained primitive trait. On the other hand coleoids have well developed eyes with lenses, sometimes covered by a corneal membrane.
-
'''Infraclass Orthoceratoidea''' Kuhn, 1940
+
The extent to which these distinctions can be extrapolated into fossil forms is questionable and subject to individual interpretation. Ammonoids for example are thought to be more closely related to coleoids than to nautiloids on the basis of being angueradulate (with 9 radular elements like coleoids) from the few radula found, in spite of having an external shell, and are therefor considered neocephalopods. Paleozoic orthocerids are considered neocephalopods because their protoconch is like that of ammonoids in spite of having an obviously nautiloid phragmocone.
-
  Order [[Orthocerida]] Kuhn, 1940
+
-
  Order [[Ascocerida]] Kuhn, 1949
+
-
'''Infraclass Ammonoidea''' Agassiz, 1947
+
==== Alternative Taxonomies====
-
  Order [[Bactritida]] Shimanskiy
+
-
  Order [[Anarcestida]] Miller & Furnish 1954
+
-
  Order [[Goniatitida]] Hyatt 1884
+
-
  Order [[Clymeniida]] Wedekind 1927
+
-
  Order [[Prolecanitida]] Miller & Furnish 1954
+
-
  Order [[Ceratitida]] Hyatt 1884
+
-
  Order [[Phyllocerida]] Kuhn, 1940
+
-
  Order [[Lytocerida]] Hyatt 1889
+
-
  Order [[Ammonitida]] Agassiz 1847
+
-
  Order [[Ancylocerida]] Wedman 1966
+
-
'''Infraclass Coleoidea''' Bather, 1888
+
:'''An Infraclass based taxonomy'''
-
  Order [[Boletzkiyida]] Bandel, Reitner & Stürmer 1983
+
-
  Order [[Aulococerida]] Wedman 1966
+
-
  Order [[Belemnitida]] Zittel 1885
+
-
  Order [[Phragmoteuthida]] Jeletzky 1964
+
-
  Order [[Teuthida]] Naef 1916
+
-
  Order [[Belemnoteuthida]] Stolley 1919
+
-
  Order [[Sepiida]] Naef 1916
+
-
  Order [[Vampyromorpha]] Grimpe 1917
+
-
  Order [[Octopodida]] Leach 1818
+
-
==Phylogeny==
+
The following basically follows Teichert (1988) except that Teichert's two Subclasses Endoceratoidea and Actinoceratoidea have been discarded, since the two orders [[Endocerida]] and [[Actinocerida]] are not so distinct from their contemporaries as to justify such a high taxonomic ranking.
-
[[Mollusca|<==]]Cephalopoda
+
'''Infraclass unnamed''' ("Ellesmeroceroidea"? or several infraclasses?)<br>
-
    |--''Plectronoceras''
+
:Order [[Plectronocerida]] Flower, 1964.
-
    `-+--[[Ellesmerocerida]]
+
:Order [[Yanhecerida]] Chen & Qi, 1979.(or included in Plectronocerida?)
-
      |--[[Nautilida]]
+
:Order [[Protactinocerida]] Chen & Qi, 1979.(or included in Plectronocerida?)
-
      |--+--[[Endoceratoidea]]
+
:Order [[Ellesmerocerida]] Flower, 1950.
-
      |  `--[[Actinoceratoidea]]
+
:Order [[Endocerida]] Teichert, 1933.
-
      `--+--[[Orthocerida]]
+
:Order [[Intejocerida]] Balashov, 1960. (or included in Endocerida?)
-
        `--+--[[Bactritida]] [Bactritoidea]
+
:Order [[Discosorida]] Flower, 1950
-
            |--[[Aulacoceratida]]
+
:Order [[Actinocerida]] Teichert, 1933
-
            |--[[Ammonoidea]]
+
:Order [[Pseudorthocerida]]  
-
            `--[[Coleoidea]]
+
-
Cephalopoda ''incertae sedis'':
+
'''Infraclass Nautiloidea''' Agassiz, 1947<br> (Superorder Nautilitoidea, Wade)<br>
-
  ''Tapashanites''
+
:Order [[Tarphycerida]] Flower, 1950.  
-
  ''Pseudotirolites asiatica''
+
::Suborder [[Tarphycerina]] Flower, 1950.  
-
  ''Pseudogastrioceras''
+
::Suborder [[Barrandeocerina]] Flower, 1950.
-
  ''Gattendorfia''
+
:Order [[Oncocerida]] Flower, 1950.
-
  ''Ammonellipsites''
+
:Order [[Nautilida]] Agassiz, 1847.
-
  ''Pseudogrammoceras''
+
-
  ''Denckmannia''
+
-
  ''Esericeras''
+
-
  ''Pleydellia subcompta''
+
-
  ''Lolliguncula''
+
-
  ''Belemnella''
+
-
    |--''B. casimirovensis''
+
-
    |--''B. lanceolata''
+
-
    `--''B. occidentalis''
+
-
  ''Belemnitella''
+
-
    |--''B. junior''
+
-
    |--''B. langei''
+
-
    |--''B. minor''
+
-
    `--''B. schmidti'' Christensen & Schulz 1997
+
-
  ''Dimitobelus''
+
-
    |--''D. hectori''
+
-
    `--''D. stimulus''
+
-
  ''Rhabdoceras suessi'' Oravecz 1961
+
-
  ''Phoenixites frechi''
+
-
  ''Holzapfeloceras''
+
-
    |--*''H. convolutum'' (Holzapfel 1895)
+
-
    `--''H. croyi'' House 1978
+
-
  ''Sobolewia''
+
-
    |--''S. nuciformis'' (Whidborne 1890)
+
-
    `--''S. rotella'' (Holzapfel 1985)
+
-
  ''Parodiceras''
+
-
  ''Werneroceras''
+
-
  ''Maenioceras terebratum'' (Sandberger & Sandberger 1856)
+
-
  ''Tornoceras''
+
-
  ''Gomiprotomeroceras'' (''nom. inv.'')
+
-
    `--''G. acutum'' Sobolew 1914
+
-
  ''Wedekindella brilonensis'' (Kayser 1872)
+
-
  ''Pseudoprobeloceras polonicum'' (Sobolew 1914)
+
-
  ''Archoceras''
+
-
    |--''A. tataense'' Bensaïd 1974
+
-
    `--''A. varicosum'' (Drevermann 1901)
+
-
  ''Ponticeras''
+
-
  ''Koenenites lamellosus'' (Sandberger & Sandberger 1856)
+
-
  ''Acanthoclymenia genundewa'' (Clarke 1898)
+
-
  ''Pharciceras''
+
-
  ''Epitornoceras mithracoides'' (Frech 1887)
+
-
  ''Linguatornoceras'' [incl. ''Truyolsoceras'']
+
-
    |--''L. clausum'' (Glenister 1958)
+
-
    |--''L. compressum'' (Clarke 1899)
+
-
    `--''‘Truyolsoceras’ undulatum'' (Sandberger & Sandberger 1856)
+
-
  ''Manticoceras''
+
-
    |--''M. adorfense'' (Wedekind 1913)
+
-
    |--''M. ammon'' (Keyserling 1844)
+
-
    |--''M. drevermanni'' (Wedekind 1913)
+
-
    |--''M. intumescens'' (Beyrich 1837)
+
-
    |--''M. inversum'' Wedekind 1913
+
-
    |--''M. lamed'' (Sandberger & Sandberger 1850)
+
-
    `--''M. sinuosum''
+
-
  ''Aulatornoceras''
+
-
    |--''A. auris'' (Quenstedt 1846)
+
-
    `--''A. belgicum'' (Matern 1931)
+
-
  ''Beloceras acutodorsatum'' Dybczyński 1913
+
-
  ''Crickites holzapfeli'' Wedekind 1913
+
-
  ''Crassotornoceras belgicum'' (Matern 1931)
+
-
  ''Siemiradzkia''
+
-
  ''Arkelloceras tozeri'' Frebold 1951
+
-
  ''Parachondroceras filicostatum'' Imlay 1967
+
-
  ''Imlayoceras'' Frebold 1963
+
-
  ''Talkeetnites'' Imlay 1980
+
-
  ''Longaeviceras''
+
-
  ''Chamoussetia''
+
-
  ''Xenocephalites'' [incl. ''Cadoceras'' (''Oligocadoceras'' Meledina 1977)]
+
-
    |--''‘Arcticoceras’ crassicostatum''
+
-
    `--''‘Arcticoceras’ loveanum''
+
-
  ''Goniocamax lundgreni''
+
-
  ''Gonioteuthis praewesfalica''
+
-
  ''Actinocamax verus''
+
-
    |--''A. v. verus''
+
-
    `--''A. v. antefragilis''
+
-
  ''Teicherticeras''
+
-
    |--''T. desideratum''
+
-
    `--''T. lissovi''
+
-
  ''Talenticeras''
+
-
  ''Mimosphinctes''
+
-
  ''Miklukhoceras pamiricum'' Pavlov 1967
+
-
  [[Perrinitidae]]
+
-
  ''Prostacheoceras'' Ruzhencev 1937 [Cycloloboidea, Vidrioceratidae]
+
-
    |--*''P. juresanensis'' (Maximova 1935) [=''Marathonites juresanensis'']
+
-
    |--''P. alter'' Leonova 1989
+
-
    `--''P. oshense'' (Toumanskaya 1938)
+
-
  ''Paraceltites'' Gemmellaro 1887
+
-
  ''Stacheoceras'' Gemmellaro 1887
+
-
  ''Epiglyphioceras'' Spath 1930
+
-
  ''Schreyerites binodosus'' (Hauer 1851)
+
-
  ''Paraceratites''
+
-
    |--''P. brembanus'' (Mojsisovics 1882)
+
-
    `--''P. trinodosus'' (Mojsisovics 1882)
+
-
  ''Synpharciceras clavilobum'' (Sandberger & Sandberger 1850)
+
-
  ''Acrimeroceras falcisulcatum'' Becker 1993
+
-
  ''Prolobites''
+
-
    |--''P. aktubensis'' Bogoslovsky 1969
+
-
    `--''P. delphinus'' (Sandberger & Sandbergber 1850)
+
-
  ''Clistroceras globosum'' Nassichuk 1967
+
-
  ''Nathorstites maconnelli'' (Whiteaves 1889)
+
-
  ''Mayaites'' (''Araucanites'') ''stipanicici'' Westermann & Riccardi 1975
+
-
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of genus indicated
+
'''Infraclass Orthoceratoidea''' Kuhn, 1940
 +
(Orthoceratoidea Wade, in part)<br>
 +
:Order [[Orthocerida]] Kuhn, 1940.
 +
:Order [[Ascocerida]] Kuhn, 1949.
-
==Exobiology==
+
'''Infraclass Ammonoidea''' Agassiz, 1947<br>
-
Serious scientists have suggested that [http://speculativeevolution.wikia.com/wiki/Intelligent_aliens intelligent aliens] if they exist may resemble cephalopods and may not be like vertibrates.  [http://www.alientimes.org/Main/AlienScientistAlienBodyLanguage Alien Scientist: Alien Body Language]
+
(=Subclass [[Ammonoidea]])
 +
:Order [[Bactritida]] Shimanskiy
 +
:Order [[Anarcestida]] Miller & Furnish 1954
 +
:Order [[Goniatitida]] Hyatt 1884
 +
:Order [[Clymeniida]] Wedekind 1927
 +
:Order [[Prolecanitida]] Miller & Furnish 1954
 +
:Order [[Ceratitida]] Hyatt 1884
 +
:Order [[Phyllocerida]] Kuhn, 1940
 +
:Order [[Lytocerida]] Hyatt 1889
 +
:Order [[Ammonitida]] Agassiz 1847
 +
:Order [[Ancylocerida]] Wedman 1966
-
== Dendrogram Sources ==
+
'''Infraclass Coleoidea''' Bather, 1888 <br>
 +
(=Subclass [[Coleoidea]])
 +
:Order [[Aulococerida]] Wedman 1966
 +
:Order [[Boletzkiyida]] Bandel, Reitner & Stürmer 1983
 +
:Order [[Belemnitida]] Zittel 1885
 +
:Order [[Belemnoteuthida]] Stolley 1919
 +
:Order [[Phragmoteuthida]] Jeletzky 1964
 +
:Order [[Teuthida]] Naef 1916
 +
:Order [[Sepiida]] Naef 1916
 +
:Order [[Octopodida]] Leach 1818
 +
:Order [[Vampyromorpha]] Grimpe 1917 (or in Octopodida)
-
Branstetter, S. 2002. Smooth dogfishes. Family Triakidae. In ''Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine'' (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds.) 3rd ed. pp. 37-38. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.
 
-
Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. ''Marine Biology'', 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.
+
:'''Superordinal Classification''' from Wade, 1988.
-
 
+
-
Christopher, R. A., & D. C. Prowell. 2002. A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA. ''Cretaceous Research'' 23: 639-669.
+
>Group (Subclass) '''Nautiloidea'''
-
 
+
-
Cruickshank, A. R. I., & R. E. Fordyce. 2003. A new marine reptile (Sauropterygia) from New Zealand: Further evidence for a Late Cretaceous austral radiation of cryptoclidid plesiosaurs. ''Palaeontology'' 45 (3): 557-575.
+
-
 
+
-
Delsate, D., & L. Candoni. 2001. Description de nouveaux morphotypes dentaires de Batomorphii toarciens (Jurassique inférieur) du Bassin de Paris: Archaeobatidae nov. fam. ''Bull. Soc. Nat. Luxemb.'' 102: 131-143.
+
-
 
+
-
Dzik, J. 2002. Emergence and collapse of the Frasnian conodont and ammonoid communities in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. ''Acta Palaeontologica Polonica'' 47: 565-650.
+
-
 
+
-
Girard, C., E. Robin, R. Rocchia, L. Froget & R. Feist. 1997. Search for impact remains at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in the stratotype area, southern France. ''Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology'' 132: 391-397.
+
-
Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: A high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. ''Invertebrate Biology'' 121 (4): 271-324.
+
Superorder [[Plectronoceratoidea]]
 +
: Order: [[Plectronocerida]]
 +
: Order: [[Yanhecerida]] (or in Plectronocerida)
 +
: Order: [[Protactinocerida]] (or in Plectronocerida)
 +
: Order: [[Ellesmerocerida]].
-
Huff, J. A., & S. P. Cobb. 1979. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda). ''Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises'' 5 (4): 1-101.
+
Superorder Endoceratoidea, = Order: [[Endocerida]]
-
Klapper, G., T. T. Uyeno, D. K. Armstrong & P. G. Telford. 2004. Conodonts of the Williams Island and Long Rapids Formations (Upper Devonian, Frasnian – Famennian) of the Onakawana B Drillhole, Moose River Basin, northern Ontario, with a revision of the Lower Famennian species. ''Journal of Paleontology'' 78: 371-387.
+
Superorder Actinoceratoidea, = Order: [[Actinocerida]]
-
Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002. Smelts. Family Osmeridae. In ''Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine'' (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds.) 3rd ed. pp. 162-170. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.
+
Superorder Discosoroidea, = Order: [[Discosorida]]
-
Klug, C., & D. Korn. 2002. Occluded umbilicus in the Pinacitinae (Devonian) and its palaeoecological implications. ''Palaeontology'' 45 (5): 917-931.
+
Superorder [[Orthoceratoidea]]
 +
: Order: [[Orthocerida]]
 +
: Order: [[Pseudorthocerida]]
 +
: Order: [[Ascocerida]]
-
Lane, N. G., C. G. Maples & J. A. Waters. 2001. Revision of Late Devonian (Famennian) and some Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian) crinoids and blastoids from the type Devonian area of north Devon. ''Palaeontology'' 44 (6): 1043-1080.
+
Superorder [[Nautilitoidea]]
 +
: Order: [[Tarphycerida]]
 +
: Order: [[Oncocerida]]
 +
: Order: [[Nautilida]]
-
Lee, S. E., R. D. Gates & D. K. Jacobs. 2003. Gene fishing: The use of a simple protocol to isolate multiple homeodomain classes from diverse invertebrate taxa. ''Journal of Molecular Evolution'' 56: 509-516.
+
>Group (subclass '''Dibranchia''')
-
Nardi, F., G. Spinsanti, J. L. Boore, A. Carapelli, R. Dallai & F. Frati. 2003. Hexapod origins: Monophyletic or paraphyletic? ''Science'' 299: 1887-1889.
+
Superorder [[Bactritoidea]]
 +
: Order: [[Bactritida]]
 +
: Order: [[Aulococerida]]
 +
: Order: [[Spirulida]]
-
Pan, H.-Z., & D. H. Erwin. 2002. Gastropods from the Permian of Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces, south China. ''Journal of Paleontology'' 76 (Memoir 56): 1-49.
+
Superorder [[Ammonoidea|Ammonitoidea]]
 +
(= subclass Ammonoidea, see for content)
-
Poulton, T. P. 1987. Zonation and correlation of Middle Boreal Bathonian to Lower Callovian (Jurassic) ammonites, Salmon Cache Canyon, Porcupine River, northern Yukon. ''Geological Survey of Canada – Bulletin'' 358: 1-155.
+
Superorder [[Coleoidea]]
 +
(= subclass Coleoidea)
 +
: Order: [[Belemnitida]]
 +
: Order: [[Phragmoteuthid]]
 +
: Order: [[Sepiida]]
 +
: Order: [[Teuthida]]
 +
: Order: [[Octopoda]]
-
Prothero, D. R. 1998. ''Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology''. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.
 
-
Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early – Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. ''Cretaceous Research'' 23: 739-760.
 
-
Spaeth, C. 1998. Cretaceous cephalopods. ''Lethaia'' 31: 28.
+
====[[Cephalopoda phylogeny|Evolutionary History]]====
-
Stiller, F., & Chen J. 2004. ''Eophilobryoidella sinoanisica'' new genus and species, an early philobryid bivalve from the Upper Anisian (Middle Triassic) of Qingyan, southwestern China. ''Journal of Paleontology'' 78 (2): 418-419.
+
==''References'' ==
-
Thomson, K. S., & K. S. W. Campbell. 1971. The structure and relationships of the primitive Devonian lungfish – ''Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi'' (Etheridge). ''Yale University Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin'' 38: 1-109.
+
Teichert,Curt 1988. "Main Features of Cephalopod Evolution", pp.19-20, in ''The Mollusca'' vol.12, ''Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods'', ed. by M.R. Clarke & E.R. Trueman, Academic Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
-
Wellnhofer, P. 2003. A Late Triassic pterosaur from the Northern Calcareous Alps (Tyrol, Austria). In ''Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs'' (E. Buffetaut & J.-M. Mazin, eds.) ''Geological Society Special Publications'' 217: 5-22. The Geological Society: London.
 
-
Zhou, Z., & M. Liengjarern. 2004. Lower Permian perrinitid ammonoid faunas from Thailand. ''Journal of Paleontology'' 78: 317-339.
 
'''Credits'''   
'''Credits'''   
-
text © M. Alan Kazlev 1998-2002; taxonomy and references CKT071126
+
© M. Alan Kazlev 1998-2002 with revisions by John M 2010-2011.

Latest revision as of 11:56, 12 September 2014

Personal tools