Cervidae

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It is thought that the Telemetacarpalia evolved about 5 million years ago in the forests of North America and Siberia, while the Plesiometacarpalia originated in Asia.
It is thought that the Telemetacarpalia evolved about 5 million years ago in the forests of North America and Siberia, while the Plesiometacarpalia originated in Asia.
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==Phylogeny==
 
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[[Ruminantia|<==]]Cervidae
 
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    |  ''i. s.'': ''[[Megamuntiacus vuquangensis]]'' Tuoc, Dung ''et al.'' 1994
 
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    |        ''[[Eucladoceros boulei]]''
 
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    |        ''[[Dicrocerus]]'' Lartet 1839 [incl. ''Cosoryx'']
 
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    |          |--''D. dichotomus''
 
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    |          |--''D. furcatus'' (Leidy 1869) [=''Cosoryx furcatus''; incl. ''C. ramosus'' Cope 1874]
 
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    |          |--''D. gemmifer'' (Cope 1873) [=''Cosoryx gemmifer'']
 
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    |          |--''D. necatus'' (Leidy 1854) [=''Merycodus necatus''; incl. ''Cervus warrenii'' Leidy 1858]
 
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    |          |--''D. tehuanus'' Cope 1876
 
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    |          |--''D. teres'' (Cope 1874) [=''Cosoryx teres'']
 
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    |          `--''D. trilateralis'' Cope 1876
 
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    |--[[Cervinae]] [Plesiometacarpalia]
 
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    |    |--[[Cervini]]
 
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    |    `--[[Muntiacini]] [Muntiacinae]
 
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    |        |--''[[Muntiacus]]''
 
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    |        `--''[[Elaphodus]]'' Milne-Edwards 1871
 
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    |              `--''[[Elaphodus cephalophus|E. cephalophus]]''
 
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    `--[[Capreolinae]] [Odocoileinae, Telemetacarpalia]
 
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        |--[[Odocoileini]]
 
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        `--+--Alceini [Alcinae, Alcini]
 
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            |    |--''[[Cervalces]]''
 
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            |    |--''[[Libralces]]''
 
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            |    `--''[[Alces]]'' Gray 1821
 
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            |        |--*''[[Alces alces|A. alces]]'' (Linnaeus 1758)
 
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            |        `--''[[Alces americanus|A. americanus]]''
 
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            `--Capreolini
 
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                |--''[[Procapreolus]]''
 
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                |--''[[Hydropotes]]'' Swinhoe 1870 [Hydropotinae, Hydropotini]
 
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                |    `--''[[Hydropotes inermis|H. inermis]]''
 
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                `--''[[Capreolus]]'' Gray 1821
 
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                      |--*''[[Capreolus capreolus|C. capreolus]]''
 
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                      |--''C. matheronis'' (Gervais 1850)
 
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                      `--''C. pygargus''
 
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Inorganic: ''Alces alces minilorientalus'' [[Chonosuke Okamura|Okamura]] 1987
 
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            ''Capreolus capreolus minilorientalus'' [[Chonosuke Okamura|Okamura]] 1987
 
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
 
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== References ==
 
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Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. ''Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian'' 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.
 
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Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. ''Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)'' 78 (1): 8-14.
 
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Forsten, A. 1999. Snout proportions in some Eurasian hipparions (Mammalia, Equidae): taxonomic and functional implications. ''Geodiversitas'' 21 (2): 255-278.
 
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Gilbert, C., A. Ropiquet & A. Hassanin. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography. ''Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution'' 40 (1): 101-117.
 
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Hamilton, W. R. 1978. Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 496-508. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
 
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Hughes, S., T. J. Hayden, C. J. Douady, C. Tougard, M. Germonpré, A. Stuart, L. Lbova, R. F. Carden, C. Hänni & L. Say. 2006. Molecular phylogeny of the extinct giant deer, ''Megaloceros giganteus''. ''Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution'' 40 (1): 285-291.
 
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Lister, A. M., C. J. Edwards, D. A. W. Nock, M. Bunce, I. A. van Pijlen, D. G. Bradley, M. G. Thomas & I. Barnes. 2005. The phylogenetic position of the ‘giant deer’ ''Megaloceros giganteus''. ''Nature'' 438: 850-853.
 
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Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. ''Zoology'' (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).
 
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[[Chonosuke Okamura|Okamura, C.]] 1987. New facts: ''Homo'' and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. ''Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory'' 15: 347-573.
 
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Randi, E., N. Mucci, M. Pierpaoli & E. Douzery. 1998. New phylogenetic perspectives on the Cervidae (Artiodactyla) are provided by the mitochondrial cytochrome ''b'' gene. ''Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B – Biological Sciences'' 265: 793-801.
 
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Timm, R. M., & J. H. Brandt. 2001. ''Pseudonovibos spiralis'' (Artiodactyla: Bovidae): New information on this enigmatic south-east Asian ox. ''Journal of Zoology'' 253: 157-166.
 
==Credits==
==Credits==
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{{wikipedia}}[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervidae Cervidae]; phylogeny and references [[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 04:13, 10 June 2008 (PDT)
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{{wikipedia}}[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervidae Cervidae]

Latest revision as of 06:46, 8 November 2012

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