Cetartiodactyla

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The cetartiodactyls include a large number of familiar beasts, including whales, dolphins, pigs, hippos, cattle, deer and antelope. These are the artiodactyls or "even-toed ungulates" plus whales. Obviously the number of toes in whales is a somewhat moot point. Except for some early whales, most of the cetartiodactyl groups lack even minimal coverage in Palæos at the moment, so we will defer most discussion.  
The cetartiodactyls include a large number of familiar beasts, including whales, dolphins, pigs, hippos, cattle, deer and antelope. These are the artiodactyls or "even-toed ungulates" plus whales. Obviously the number of toes in whales is a somewhat moot point. Except for some early whales, most of the cetartiodactyl groups lack even minimal coverage in Palæos at the moment, so we will defer most discussion.  
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== Relationships ==
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[[Cetferungulata|<==]]Cetartiodactyla [Artiodactyla, Selenodontia, Suiformes]
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    |  ''i. s.'': ''Bothriodon'' [incl. ''Hyopotamus'']
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    |        ''Heptacodon''
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    |        ''Siamotragulus''
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    |        ''Dicotyles labiatus''
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    |        ''Oreodon culbertsonii''
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    |        ''Merychyus'' Leidy 1858
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    |          |--''M. elegans''
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    |          |--''M. major''
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    |          `--''M. medius'' Leidy 1858
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    |        Dichobunidae
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    |          |--''Aumelasia'' Sudre 1980
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    |          |--''Protodichobune'' Lemoine 1878
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    |          |    `--*''P. oweni'' Lemoine 1878
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    |          `--''Gujaratia pakistanensis''
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    |        ''Hexacodus'' [Homacodontidae]
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    |          `--''H. pelodes'' Gazin 1952
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    |        Dacrytheriidae
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    |          |--''Catodontherium'' Deperet 1908
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    |          |    `--''C. argentonicum'' Stehlin 1910
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    |          |--''Leptotheridium'' Stehlin 1910
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    |          |--''Dacrytherium'' Filhol 1876
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    |          `--''Tapirulus'' Gervais 1850
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    |                |--''T. majori'' Stehlin 1910
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    |                `--''T. perrierensis'' Sudre 1978
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    |        ''Gobiohyus orientalis'' Matthew & Granger 1925
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    |--Paleodontidae
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    |--''‘Diacodexis’ pakistanensis'' Thewissen, Russell ''et al.'' 1983
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    `--+--''Agriochoerus''
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      `--+--Tylopoda
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          |    |--+--''Cainotherium'' [Cainotheriidae]
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          |    |  `--+--Anoplotheriidae
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          |    |    `--Xiphodontidae
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          |    `--+--''Merycoidodon'' [Merycoidodontidae]
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          |      `--+--[[Camelidae]]
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          |          `--Protoceratidae
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          |              |--''Synthetoceras''
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          |              `--''Cranioceras''
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          `--+--''Diacodexis'' Cope 1881
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            |    |--''D. secans'' (Cope 1881)
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            |    `--''D. varleti'' Sudre, Russell ''et al.'' 1983
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            `--+--Entelodontidae
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                |    |--''Dinohyus''
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                |    `--''Paraentelodon macrognathus''
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                `--+--[[Suina]]
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                  `--+--+--''Khirtharia dayi''
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                      |  `--+--''Gervachoerus''
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                      |    |--[[Choeropotamoidea]]
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                      |    `--[[Ruminantia]]
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                      `--+--[[Anthracotherioidea]]
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                        `--Cetancodonta
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                              |--[[Hippopotamidae]]
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                              `--+--''Archaeotherium''
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                                `--[[Cetacea]]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
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==References==
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Arnason, U., J. A. Adegoke, K. Bodin, E. W. Born, Y. B. Esa, A. Gullberg, M. Nilsson, R. V. Short, X. Xu & A. Janke. 2002. Mammalian mitogenomic relationships and the root of the eutherian tree. ''Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA'' 99 (12): 8151-8156.
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Chaimanee, Y., D. Jolly, M. Benammi, P. Tafforeau, D. Duzer, I. Moussa & J.-J. Jaeger. 2003. A Middle Miocene hominoid from Thailand and orangutan origins. ''Nature'' 422: 61-65.
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Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. ''Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian'' 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.
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Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. ''Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)'' 78 (1): 8-14.
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Gingerich, P. D., M. ul Haq, I. S. Zalmout, I. H. Khan & M. S. Malkani. 2001. Origin of whales from early artiodactyls: Hands and feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan. ''Science'' 293: 2239-2242.
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Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 28-39. Torstar Books: New York.
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O’Leary, M. A. 2001. The phylogenetic position of cetaceans: Further combined data analyses, comparisons with the stratigraphic record and a discussion of character optimization. ''American Zoologist'' 41: 487-506.
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Sudre, J., & G. Lecomte. 2000. Relations et position systématique du genre ''Cuisitherium'' Sudre ''et al.'', 1983, le plus dérivé des artiodactyles de l’Éocène inféreur d’Europe. ''Geodiversitas'' 22 (3): 415-432.
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Thewissen, J. G. M., E. M. Williams, L. J. Roe & S. T. Hussain. 2001. Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls. ''Nature'' 413: 277-281.
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Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek & R. J. Asher. 2007. Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary. ''Nature'' 447: 1003-1006.
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'''Credits'''
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[[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 04:09, 14 June 2008 (PDT)
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Latest revision as of 06:29, 8 November 2012

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