Chlorobionta

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(Rhyniophtya)
(moved Charophyta section)
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Like the land plant lineage, they tend to form large aggregates, with some tissue differentiation (primarily holdfasts and reproductive structures).  They are very often found in terrestrial and fresh water environments, with a distinct preference for very cold environments, such as under snow cover, or even within Antarctic ice.  Various species are important in forming symbiotic relationships with [[fungi]], i.e., [[lichen]]s.  As with all green algae, chlorophytes tend to have a double cell wall -- an inner wall of cellulose and an outer gelatinous wall of protein, particularly [[pectin]], known in higher plants as a marker for [[parenchyma]].  [[Starch]] stored in [[pyrenoid]]s, located inside the chloroplasts.
Like the land plant lineage, they tend to form large aggregates, with some tissue differentiation (primarily holdfasts and reproductive structures).  They are very often found in terrestrial and fresh water environments, with a distinct preference for very cold environments, such as under snow cover, or even within Antarctic ice.  Various species are important in forming symbiotic relationships with [[fungi]], i.e., [[lichen]]s.  As with all green algae, chlorophytes tend to have a double cell wall -- an inner wall of cellulose and an outer gelatinous wall of protein, particularly [[pectin]], known in higher plants as a marker for [[parenchyma]].  [[Starch]] stored in [[pyrenoid]]s, located inside the chloroplasts.
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=== Charophyta (= Streptophyta) ===
 
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The Charophyta are the other lineage of green algae, the group which includes the land plants.  Karol ''et al.'' (2001).  As mentioned above, our working definition is ''Quercus'' (oak) > ''Chlamydomonas''.  The Charophyta have recently been referred to as the [[Streptophyta]], but the reasons given for this change in nomenclature are probably insufficient.  Unfortunately, the name is also frequently, and wrongly, used in place of [[Charophyceae]] or [[Charales]] to describe the stoneworts -- one of several distinct groups of charophytes. 
 
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The synapomorphies of the group are said to include the the dissolution of the nuclear membrane during mitosis and the presence of paired flagella (when flagella are present at all) directed perpendicularly to each other.  In addition, the charophytes are strongly inclined toward growth as long filaments. 
 
=== Embryophyta ===
=== Embryophyta ===

Revision as of 08:47, 23 November 2006

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