Demospongiae

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Lithistids are distinguished by irregular knobby spicules known as "[[desma]]s" that interlock to hold the skeleton together in a reticulate wall of great thickness. They fossilize readily and in recognizable form because the interlocking desmas retain the original form of the sponge. This group, which includes many fossil demosponge taxa, is now considered polyphyletic with members in both the Tetractinomorpha and the Ceractinomorpha. However, most workers have refrained from allocating the various families, owing to limited knowledge of the group and the fact that the numerous fossil genera would be difficult or impossible to place since the free spicules are almost always lost upon death of the sponge. [Moore ''et al,'' p.93, Clarkson, p.53,  [http://www.interchange.ubc.ca/csmecher/order/lithisti.htm Smecher iNet] ]
Lithistids are distinguished by irregular knobby spicules known as "[[desma]]s" that interlock to hold the skeleton together in a reticulate wall of great thickness. They fossilize readily and in recognizable form because the interlocking desmas retain the original form of the sponge. This group, which includes many fossil demosponge taxa, is now considered polyphyletic with members in both the Tetractinomorpha and the Ceractinomorpha. However, most workers have refrained from allocating the various families, owing to limited knowledge of the group and the fact that the numerous fossil genera would be difficult or impossible to place since the free spicules are almost always lost upon death of the sponge. [Moore ''et al,'' p.93, Clarkson, p.53,  [http://www.interchange.ubc.ca/csmecher/order/lithisti.htm Smecher iNet] ]
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==Taxonomy==
 
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[[Animalia|<==]]Demospongiae [Cornacuspongida, Demospongea, Hadromerina, Myxospongiae]
 
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    |  ''i. s.'': Spongiidae
 
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    |          |--''Spongia''
 
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    |          |    |--''S. oculata''
 
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    |          |    |--''S. officinalis''
 
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    |          |    |--''S. panicea''
 
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    |          |    `--''S. tubulifera'' Lamarck 1814
 
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    |          `--''Hippospongia''
 
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    |                |--''H. communis''
 
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    |                `--''H. frondosa'' Hentschel 1912
 
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    |        ''Plakortis''
 
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    |        ''Ophlitaspongia seriata'' Grant 1865
 
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    |        [[Halichondriidae]]
 
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    |        ''Stylocordyla borealis''
 
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    |        ''Rhizaxinella burtoni''
 
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    |        ''Chondrocladia gigantea''
 
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    |        ''Pachymatisma johnstonia''
 
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    |        ''Neofibularia mordens''
 
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    |        ''Synops anceps''
 
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    |        ''Tedania'' [Tedaniidae]
 
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    |          |--''T. actiniformis''
 
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    |          |--''T. brevispiculata'' Thiele 1903
 
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    |          |--''T. coralliophila'' Thiele 1903
 
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    |          |--''T. dirhaphis'' Hentschel 1912
 
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    |          |--''T. maeandrica'' Thiele 1903
 
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    |          `--''T. reticulata'' Thiele 1903
 
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    |        ''Xestospongia muta''
 
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    |        ''Esperiopsis digitata''
 
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    |        ''Verongia archeri''
 
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    |        ''Ianthella''
 
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    |        Clionaidae
 
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    |          |--''Thoosa istriaca'' Müller, Zahn ''et al.'' 1979
 
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    |          `--''Cliona''
 
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    |                |--''C. celata''
 
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    |                `--''C. orientalis'' Thiele 1900
 
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    |        Polymastiidae
 
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    |          |--''Polymastia bursa'' Koltun 1966
 
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    |          `--''Tentorium levantinum'' Ilan, Gugel ''et al.'' 2003
 
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    |        ''Lissodendoryx''
 
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    |          |--''L. firma''
 
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    |          `--''L. kyma''
 
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    |        ''Aplysilla''
 
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    |          |--''A. rosacea''
 
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    |          `--''A. sulfurea''
 
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    |        [[Geodiidae]]
 
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    |        ''Mycale'' Gray 1867 [incl. ''Esperella'' Vosmaer 1885; Mycalidae]
 
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    |          |--''M. armata'' Thiele 1903 [=''Esperella armata'' ms]
 
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    |          |--''M. fibrexilis''
 
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    |          |--''M. macilenta''
 
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    |          |--''M. moluccensis'' Thiele 1903
 
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    |          |--''M. rhaphidotoxa'' Hentschel 1912
 
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    |          |--''M. richardsoni''
 
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    |          `--''M. sulcata''
 
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    |                |--''M. s. sulcata''
 
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    |                `--''M. s. aruensis'' Hentschel 1912
 
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    |        [[Chalinidae]]
 
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    |        ''Agelas'' [Agelasidae]
 
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    |          |--''A. cavernosa'' Thiele 1903
 
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    |          |--''A. cerebrum'' Assmann, van Soest & Köck 2001
 
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    |          `--''A. dispar'' Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864
 
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    |        Anthracosyconidae
 
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    |        ''Collatipora'' Finks 1960
 
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    |        Haplosclerida
 
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    |          |--[[Spongillidae]]
 
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    |          `--''Pellina'' Schmidt 1870 [Oceanapiidae]
 
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    |                `--''P. penicilliformis'' van Soest & Sass 1981
 
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    |        Myxillina [Poecilosclerida]
 
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    |          |--[[Coelosphaeridae]]
 
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    |          `--Myxillidae
 
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    |                |--''Myxilla'' Schmidt 1862 [incl. ''Dendoryx'' Gray 1867]
 
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    |                |    `--''M. grata'' Thiele 1903 [=''Dendoryx grata'' ms]
 
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    |                `--''Hymenancora lundbecki'' Hentschel 1912
 
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    |        Suberitidae [Hadromerida]
 
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    |          |--''Prosuberites'' Topsent 1893
 
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    |          |    `--''P. geracei'' van Soest & Sass 1981
 
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    |          `--''Suberites''
 
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    |                |--''S. domuncula''
 
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    |                `--''S. ficus''
 
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    |        Tetillidae [Spirophorida]
 
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    |          |--''Paratetilla aruensis'' Hentschel 1912
 
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    |          |--''Tetilla''
 
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    |          |    |--''T. bacca'' (Selenka 1867) [incl. ''T. ternatensis'' Kieschnick 1896]
 
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    |          |    `--''T. japonica''
 
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    |          `--''Cinachyra'' Sollas 1886
 
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    |                |--''C. mertoni'' Hentschel 1912
 
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    |                |--''C. nuda'' Hentschel 1912
 
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    |                |--''C. subterranea'' van Soest & Sass 1981
 
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    |                `--''C. vertex'' von Lendenfeld 1907
 
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    |        [[Chondrillidae]]
 
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    |        ''Hyatella sinuosa''
 
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    |--Monaxonellida
 
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    |    |--Clavulidae
 
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    |    |--Desmacidonidae
 
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    |    |    |--''Melonanchora kobjakovae''
 
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    |    |    |--''Merlia''
 
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    |    |    `--''Desmacidon aegagropila''
 
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    |    |--Axinellidae
 
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    |    |    |--''Axinella'' Schmidt 1862 [incl. ''Axinosia'' Hallmann 1914]
 
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    |    |    |    |--''A. axifera'' Hentschel 1912
 
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    |    |    |    |--''‘Axinosia’ incrustans'' Burton 1930
 
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    |    |    |    `--''A. polypoides''
 
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    |    |    `--''Phakellia''
 
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    |    |        |--''P. arctica''
 
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    |    |        `--''P. aruensis'' Hentschel 1912
 
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    |    |--Renieridae
 
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    |    `--Monocrepidae
 
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    |--Ceratosa [Ceratellida]
 
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    |    |--''Halisarca'' [Dendroceratida]
 
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    |    `--Dictyoceratida
 
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    `--Tetraxonida
 
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        |--Plakinida
 
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        |    |--''Plakina'' [Plakinidae]
 
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        |    |    |--''P. monolopha''
 
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        |    |    `--''P. trilopha''
 
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        |    |        |--''P. t. trilopha''
 
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        |    |        `--''P. t. antarctica'' von Lendenfeld 1907
 
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        |    `--''Oscarella carmela''
 
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        |--Tetractinellida
 
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        |--''Tethya'' Lamarck 1814 [incl. ''Donatia'' Nardo 1833; Donatiida, Tethyidae]
 
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        |    |--''T. aurantium'' (Pallas 1766) [incl. ''T. limski'' Müller & Zahn 1968]
 
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        |    |--''T. clavigera'' Hentschel 1912
 
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        |    |--''T. lyncurium''
 
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        |    |--''T. maza'' Selenka 1893
 
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        |    `--''‘Donatia’ tylota'' Hentschel 1912
 
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        `--Lithistida
 
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              |--Tetracladidae
 
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              `--[[Anthaspidellidae]]
 
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
 
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'''Credits'''
'''Credits'''
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MAK030430; taxonomy [[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 23:05, 12 October 2009 (UTC)
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