Dinoflagellata phylogeny

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m (Protected "Dinoflagellata phylogeny" ([move=sysop] (indefinite)))
 
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"Morphological stasis among fossil dinoflagellates is also exemplified by ''[[Gonyaulacysta]] jurassica'', which maintained the same tabulation and general shape within a single species throughout the Middle and Late Jurassic. The related cyst ''[[Spiniferites]] ramosus'' endured even longer, from the Early Cretaceous to the present. Students of evolutionary theory (e.g. Vrba 1980; Eldredge 1985) have suggested that species with long histories are generalists, whereas those with short histories are more specifically tuned to their environment. Thus, ''Gonyaulacysta jurassica'' and ''Spiniferites ramosus'' could be visualized as generalists of Middle to Late Jurassic and Cretaceous to Recent seas respectively, whereas species with shorter histories, such as ''Spiniferites septatus'' and ''[[Alisocysta]] circumtabulata'', may have been more specialized" (Fensome et al. 1996, pp. 156-157).
"Morphological stasis among fossil dinoflagellates is also exemplified by ''[[Gonyaulacysta]] jurassica'', which maintained the same tabulation and general shape within a single species throughout the Middle and Late Jurassic. The related cyst ''[[Spiniferites]] ramosus'' endured even longer, from the Early Cretaceous to the present. Students of evolutionary theory (e.g. Vrba 1980; Eldredge 1985) have suggested that species with long histories are generalists, whereas those with short histories are more specifically tuned to their environment. Thus, ''Gonyaulacysta jurassica'' and ''Spiniferites ramosus'' could be visualized as generalists of Middle to Late Jurassic and Cretaceous to Recent seas respectively, whereas species with shorter histories, such as ''Spiniferites septatus'' and ''[[Alisocysta]] circumtabulata'', may have been more specialized" (Fensome et al. 1996, pp. 156-157).
    
    
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== Systematics ==
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== [[Dinoflagellata systematics|Systematics]] ==
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Relationships within the dinoflagellates are ...
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So, what are the apomorphies which we might use to classify fossil cysts?
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We cannot say, for sure, though there are some characteristics which we can confidently say are not apomorphies. The nature of the ornamentation – whether [[chorate]] or whatever – has long been, for convenience, used to define form taxa at the generic level. Yet we see these characteristics recurring again and again, in lineages which are patently far removed. Intuitively, we realise that gross features like this, which clearly exercise a considerable effect on the life functions (e.g. flotation characteristics) of the organisms, are highly sensitive to evolutionary pressures, and are therefore likely to evolve quickly and repeatedly. Thus it is that the convenient, gross morphological features beloved of stratigraphers, and for so many years the underpinning of dinoflagellate taxonomy, are quite useless indicators of phylogeny.
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This may seem obvious today, when words like 'apomorphy' are a standard part of any taxonomists vocabulary, but it was not always so. The writer once ventured the observation that "I consider such features as the clarity with which the cingulum is delimited by sutural or penitabular septa, and indeed the distinction between these two types of ornament, to be relatively unimportant; of infrageneric significance only" (Clowes 1984, p. 29), only to be pilloried by the journal's anonymous referee. Mercifully, the then editor, Doug Nichols, was made of sterner stuff and sought a second opinion. I am grateful to him to this day. Although the paper missed the publication deadline for that volume, and so was delayed by a year, the quoted passage finally appeared without amendment.
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... associations of characteristics ...
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"Although it is a worthy objective, a widely accepted classification of fossil dinoflagellates at the family level has yet to be devised. Currently, divergent views on principles and criteria are more evident than is any general agreement on results. A comprehensive classification of fossil cysts that originated conceptually with Eisenack (1961) and was elaborated by Sarjeant and Downie (1966) has now been modified by them (Sarjeant and Downie, 1974; Sarjeant, 1974) and by others (Norris, 1978; Tappan, 1980) into several similar arrangements by which fossil cysts are distributed among about 40 families. While based mos.tly on cyst morphology, these families are regarded by Norris, at least, as approaching phylogenetically defensible entities. In contrast, Evitt (1975b) contended that a few modern genera collectively encompass the affinities of a majority of fossil cysts. In line with that view, but with modifications reflecting more recent interpretations, Table 1 .1 lists 13 families, including nine from the hierarchy of modern taxa, that would appear to accommodate the great majority of fossil cysts (admitting that considerable uncertainty must attach to many fossils with highly "generalized" morphology). However, it is not the intent in this volume to pursue the problems of a phylogenetic classification. Instead, with obvious philosophical allegiance to the second approach mentioned above, we will focus attention in Chapter 8 on 17 morphological categories. While they will be defined without strict regard to family boundaries and will include cysts with "generalized" as well as "distinctive" morphology, their approximate correspondence to the families listed at the left in Table 1.1 is shown at the right" (Evitt 1985, p. 27).
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=== Kingdom? Alveoles [Authority?] ===
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=== Phylum* Dinoflagellata Bütschli 1885 ===
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:1885 Dinoflagellata Bütschli
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:1914 Pyrrhophyta Pascher
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:1985 Pyrrhophyta, Evitt, p. 26
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:1993 Dinoflagellata (Bütschli 1885) Fensome ''et al.'', p. ??
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* Dinoflagellates are protists - neither plants nor animals. Mercifully, taxonomy has not yet been cursed with an International Code of Protistan Nomenclature (given that the objective is the same, and the issues to be overcome nearly so, it is quite bad enough that there exists separate botanical and zoological codes) so it is necessary to treat dinoflagellates as one or the other, for the purposes of nomenclature. The botanical code has been settled upon, more or less by historical accident. Botanists frequently refer to the phylum-level taxonomic rank as a "division" - another absurd terminological distinction where there is no difference.
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Type: [?] [Authority]
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Original Diagnosis: xxx
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Description: xxx
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Habit: xxx
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Distribution Occurrence: xxx
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Discussion: xxx
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Review of sub-ranks, if appropriate...
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=== Class Dinophyceae [Authority] ===
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Type: [?] [Authority]
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Original Diagnosis: xxx
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Description: xxx
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Habit: xxx
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Distribution Occurrence: xxx
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Discussion: xxx
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Evitt pp. 26-27:
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Class [[Dinophyceae|DINOPHYCEAE]] -pyrrhophytes in which one flagellum is whiplike and extends longitudinally, while the second is ribbon-like and follows a circular path in a plane about at right angles to the first. .
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Order [[Prorocentrales|PROROCENTRALES]] -dinoflagellates in which the flagella are inserted terminally ([[desmokont]] condition), the longitudinal one extending in advance of the cell, and the transverse one encircling the other anterior to the cell body. Some forms have a cellulosic theca of distinctive structure. Preservable resting cysts are unknown and there is no certain fossil record, although the order is conceivably represented by some of the organic-walled fossils currently regarded as acritarchs. Representative genera: ''[[Exuviaella]]'' (nonthecate), ''[[Prorocentrum]]'' (thecate).
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Note: In all three of the following orders for which the living cell is known, the flagella are inserted laterally ([[dinokont]] condition), the longitudinal one extends posteriorly, and both normally lie, at least in part, within channels (the so-called flagellar furrows) defined by various features on the cell surface. Fossil cysts of the extinct fourth order appear to record a similar organization.
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Order DINOPHYSIALES - dinoflagellates having the transverse flagellar furrow near the anterior limit of the cell; cell normally shows moderate to strong lateral compression; two lateral plates of the cellulosic theca are much larger than any others. Preservable resting cysts are unknown and there is no unequivocal fossil record. Representative genera: Dinophysis, ''[[Ornithocercus]]''.
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Order PERIDINIALES - dinoflagellates having the transverse flagellar furrow normally located within the medial third of cell length; theca composed of several tens of cellulosic plates organized in several series paralleling the transverse furrow. Preservable resting cysts are found in some living species and there is an extensive fossil record. Representative living genera: ''[[Peridinium]]'', ''[[Gonyaulax]]'', ''[[Ceratium]]''. Representative fossil genera: ''[[Deflandrea]]'', ''[[Gonyaulacysta'']], ''[[Odontochitina]]''. Silurian, Triassic-[[Holocene]].
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Order GYMNODINIALES - dinoflagellates having the transverse flagellar furrow usually located within the medial third of cell length; cellulosic thecal plates lacking or (rarely) thin, but corresponding vesicles more numerous than typical for Peridiniales, small, and all of about similar size. Preservable resting cysts are known in a few living species. Moderate fossil record of cysts and distinctive sporopollenin coverings of possibly motile cells. Representative living genera: ''Gymnodinium'', ''Polykrikos''. Representative fossil genera: ''Dinogymnium'', ?''[[Distatodinium]]'', ?''Suessia''. Triassic-Holocene.
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Order NANNOCERATOPSIALES - dinoflagellates having the transverse flagellar furrow near anterior extremity of cell; cell compressed laterally as in Dinophysiales; tabulation of inferred theca similar to Peridiniales in anterior part, similar to Dinophysiales in posterior part. Fossil; sole genus: ''[[Nannoceratopsis]]''. Jurassic.
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Class [[Ebriophyceae|EBRIOPHYCEAE]] -nonphotosynthetic, biflagellate, free-Iiving pyrrhophytes, lacking a resistant external covering but having a fossilizable internal siliceous skeleton. Representative genus: ''[[Ebria]]''. Geologic range: Cretaceous to Holocene.
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Class [[Ellobiophyceae|ELLOBIOPHYCEAE]]- attached parasitic pyrrhophytes without known fossil record.
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Class [[Syndiniophyceae|SYNDINIOPHYCEAE]] -intracellular parasites without known fossil record.
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== Conclusion ==
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xxx
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== Further Information ==
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"Significant works on living dinoflagellates include books edited by Spector (1984) and Taylor (1987a) and monographs by Sournia (1986; an overview of marine taxa) and Popovsky & Pfiester (1990; an overview of nonmarine taxa). Dodge (1985) published an atlas of scanning electron photomicrographs of extant dinoflagellates. Fossil dinoflagellates have been discussed in detail by Evitt (1985). Sarjeant (1974) and Edwards (1993) provided overviews of living and fossil dinoflagellates, Williams (1977, 1978) surveyed fossil dinoflagellates, Dale (1983) and Sarjeant ''et al.'' (1987) reviewed the morphology and ecology of dinoflagellate cysts with emphasis on the fossil record, and Fensome, Taylor ''et al.'' (1993) treated the classification and evolution of both fossil and living dinoflagellates. Several catalogs and indices produced in recent decades include: the catalog series initiated by Eisenack & Klement (1964) , with subsequent issues by Eisenack (1967), Eisenack & Kjellström (1971, 1972, 1975a, b, 1981a, b) and Fensome, Gocht ''et al.'' (1991, 1993); the indexes of Lentin & Williams (1973, 1975, 1977, 1981,1985, 1989, 1993); and several compendia of genera, including Stover & Evitt (1978), Artzner ''et al.'' (1979), Wilson & Clowes (1980) and Stover & Williams (1987)" (Fensome ''et al.'' 1996, p. 107).
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== Dendrogram ==
== Dendrogram ==
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The following tree differs in some regards from the classification above - [[Ellobiopsida]] are not included in Dinoflagellata, but are closely related within the [[Alveolata]]. [[Ebriophyceae]] are not regarded as related to dinoflagellates, but are tentatively included in the [[Apusozoa]]. [[Oxyrrhinales]] are here included as basal dinoflagellates, but some authors would exclude them from Dinoflagellata (Fensome ''et al.'', 1993).
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The following tree differs in some regards from the classification on the [[Dinoflagellata systematics|systematics]] page - [[Ellobiopsida]] are not included in Dinoflagellata, but are closely related within the [[Alveolata]]. [[Ebriophyceae]] are not regarded as related to dinoflagellates, but are tentatively included in the [[Apusozoa]].
  [[Alveolata|<==]]Dinoflagellata (see below for synonymy)
  [[Alveolata|<==]]Dinoflagellata (see below for synonymy)
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     |        ''Downiesphaeridium'' Islam 1993
     |        ''Downiesphaeridium'' Islam 1993
     |          `--''D. armatum'' (Deflandre) Islam 1993
     |          `--''D. armatum'' (Deflandre) Islam 1993
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    |        ''Disphaeria'' Cookson & Eisenack 1960
 
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    |          `--''D. macropyla'' Cookson & Eisenack 1960
 
     |        ''Sepispinula ancorifera'' (Cookson & Eisenack) Islam 1993
     |        ''Sepispinula ancorifera'' (Cookson & Eisenack) Islam 1993
     |        ''Peridiniopsis polonicum''
     |        ''Peridiniopsis polonicum''
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     |          `--''E. simplicius'' Conrad 1939
     |          `--''E. simplicius'' Conrad 1939
     |        ''Halophilodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 (see below for synonymy)
     |        ''Halophilodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 (see below for synonymy)
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     |          `--''H. gessneri'' (Schiller) Loeblich & Loeblich 1968 (see below for synonymy)
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     |          `--''H. gessneri'' (Schiller) Loeblich & Loeblich 1968 [=''Haematodinium gessneri'' Schiller 1956]
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    |        ''Roscoffia capitata'' Balech 1956
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    |        ''Albertidinium acutulum''
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     |        ''Agrosphaera'' Lo Bianco 1903
     |        ''Agrosphaera'' Lo Bianco 1903
     |        ''Geodinium'' Chodat 1921 [incl. ''Chlorodinium'' Chodat 1921 (''n. n.'')]
     |        ''Geodinium'' Chodat 1921 [incl. ''Chlorodinium'' Chodat 1921 (''n. n.'')]
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     |        ''Gleba'' Bruguière 1791
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     |        ''Gleba'' Bruguière 1791 ''non'' Forskal 1776 (ICZN)
     |        ''Glenoaulax'' Diesing 1866
     |        ''Glenoaulax'' Diesing 1866
     |        ''Parapodinium'' Chatton 1920
     |        ''Parapodinium'' Chatton 1920
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     |        ''Radiozoum'' Mingazzini 1904
     |        ''Radiozoum'' Mingazzini 1904
     |        ''‘Diplocystis’'' Cleve 1901 ''nec'' Trevisan 1848 ''nec'' Berkeley & Curtis 1869 ''nec'' Agardh 1896
     |        ''‘Diplocystis’'' Cleve 1901 ''nec'' Trevisan 1848 ''nec'' Berkeley & Curtis 1869 ''nec'' Agardh 1896
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     |        ''Karlodinium micrum''
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     |        ''Paralecaniella'' Cookson & Eisenack 1970
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     |--Oxyrrhinales
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     |           `--*''P. indentata'' (Deflandre & Cookson) Cookson & Eisenack 1970 (see below for synonymy)
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     |   |--''Glyphidium'' Fresenius 1865
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     |         ''Wanea'' Cookson & Eisenack 1958
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     |   `--''Oxyrrhis'' Dujardin 1841
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     |           `--*''W. spectabilis'' (Deflandre & Cookson) Cookson & Eisenack 1958 (see below for synonymy)
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     |        |--''O. marina'' Dujardin 1841
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     |        ''Fromea'' Cookson & Eisenack 1958
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     |         |--''O. maritima'' Van Meel 1969
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     |           |--*''F. amphora'' Cookson & Eisenack 1958
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     |         `--''O. tentaculifera'' Conrad 1939
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     |           `--''F. staveia'' Elsik 1977
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     `--+--''Arpylorus'' Calandra 1964 [Arpyloraceae]
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     |--''Arpylorus'' Calandra 1964 [Arpyloraceae]
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      |    `--''A. antiquus'' Calandra 1964
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    |    `--''A. antiquus'' Calandra 1964
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      `--+--[[Peridinea]]
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    `--+--Dinokaryota
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          `--+--[[Noctilucales]]
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      |    |--[[Peridinea]]
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            `--Syndiniales (see below for synonymy)
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      |    `--[[Noctilucales]]
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                  |  ''i. s.'': ''Coccidinium'' Chatton & Biecheler 1934 [Coccidiniaceae]
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      `--Syndiniales (see below for synonymy)
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                  |        ''Atelodinium'' Chatton 1920
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            |  ''i. s.'': ''Coccidinium'' Chatton & Biecheler 1934 [Coccidiniaceae]
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                  |--''Amoebophrya'' Koeppen 1894 [Amnoebophryaceae, Amoebophryidae]
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            |        ''Atelodinium'' Chatton 1920
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                  |    `--''A. ceratii'' (Koeppen 1899) Cachon 1964
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            |--''Amoebophrya'' Koeppen 1894 [Amoebophryaceae, Amoebophryidae]
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                  |--Sphaeriparaceae [Blastuloidae, Sphaeriparidae]
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            |    `--''A. ceratii'' (Koeppen 1899) Cachon 1964
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                  |    |--''Atlanticellodinium'' Cachon & Cachon-Enjumet 1965
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            |--Sphaeriparaceae [Blastuloidae, Sphaeriparidae]
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                  |    `--''Sphaeripara'' Poche 1911 (see below for synonymy)
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            |    |--''Atlanticellodinium'' Cachon & Cachon-Enjumet 1965
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                  |        `--''S. catenata'' (Neresheimer 1903) Loeblich & Loeblich 1966
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            |    `--''Sphaeripara'' Poche 1911 (see below for synonymy)
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                  |--Duboscquellaceae [Duboscquellidae]
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            |        `--''S. catenata'' (Neresheimer 1903) Loeblich & Loeblich 1966
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                  |    |--''Dogelodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 (see below for synonymy)
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            |--Duboscquellaceae [Duboscquellidae]
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                  |    |--''Duboscquodinium'' Grassé ''in'' Chatton 1952
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            |    |--''Dogelodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 (see below for synonymy)
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                  |    |--''Keppenodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 (see below for synonymy)
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            |    |--''Duboscquodinium'' Grassé ''in'' Chatton 1952
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                  |    `--''Duboscquella'' Chatton 1920
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            |    |--''Keppenodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 [=''Hollandella'' Cachon 1964 ''non'' Gill 1901]
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                  |        |--*''D. tintinnicola'' (Lohmann 1908) Chatton 1920
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            |    `--''Duboscquella'' Chatton 1920
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                  |        |--''D. anisospora'' Grassé ''in'' Chatton 1952
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            |        |--*''D. tintinnicola'' (Lohmann 1908) Chatton 1920
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                  |        `--''D. aspida'' Cachon 1964
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            |        |--''D. anisospora'' Grassé ''in'' Chatton 1952
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                  `--Syndiniaceae [Syndinidae]
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            |        `--''D. aspida'' Cachon 1964
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                      |--''Hematodinium'' Chatton & Poisson 1930
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            `--Syndiniaceae [Syndinidae]
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                      |--''Ichthyodinium'' Hollande & Cachon 1952
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                |--''Ichthyodinium'' Hollande & Cachon 1952
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                      |--''Merodinium'' Chatton 1923
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                |--''Merodinium'' Chatton 1923
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                      |--''Trypanodinium'' Chatton 1912
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                |--''Trypanodinium'' Chatton 1912
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                      |--''Syndinium'' Chatton 1910
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                |--''Hematodinium'' Chatton & Poisson 1930
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                      |    `--''S. belarii'' (Holland & Enjumet 1953) Hollande & Enjument 1955
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                |--''Syndinium'' Chatton 1910
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                      `--''Solenodinium'' (Chatton 1923) Chatton 1938
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                |    `--''S. belarii'' (Holland & Enjumet 1953) Hollande & Enjument 1955
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                            `--''S. fallax'' (Chatton 1923) Chatton 1952
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                `--''Solenodinium'' (Chatton 1923) Chatton 1938
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                      `--''S. fallax'' (Chatton 1923) Chatton 1952
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Dinoflagellata [Adiniferae, Adinophycidae, Amphilothales, Athecatales, Cilioflagellata, Desmocapsineae, Desmokontae, Desmomonadineae, Desmophyceae, Dinifera, Diniferae, Diniferida, Diniferidea, Diniferina, Diniferophycidae, Dinocapsales, Dinocapsineae, Dinococcales, Dinococcineae, Dinococcophycidae, Dinoflagellatae, Dinoflagellatophycidae, Dinoflagelliae, Dinoflagellida, Dinoflagellidea, Dinoflagellidia, Dinokaryota, Dinokontae, Dinomastigota, Dinomonadea, Dinophyceae, Dinophycidae, Dinophyta, Dinotrichales, Dinotrichineae, Endoflagellatophycidae, Kolkwitziellales, Mesocaryota, Peridineae, Peridiniaea, Peridinieae, Peridinina, Peridiniophyceae, Peridinophyceae, Phytodinierae, Phytodinozoa, Pyrrhophycophyta, Pyrrhophyta, Pyrrophyta, Rhizodineae, Rhizodininae, Thecatales]
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Dinoflagellata [Adiniferae, Adinophycidae, Amphilothales, Athecatales, Cilioflagellata, Desmocapsineae, Desmokontae, Desmomonadineae, Desmophyceae, Dinifera, Diniferae, Diniferida, Diniferidea, Diniferina, Diniferophycidae, Dinocapsales, Dinocapsineae, Dinococcales, Dinococcineae, Dinococcophycidae, Dinoflagellatae, Dinoflagellatophycidae, Dinoflagelliae, Dinoflagellida, Dinoflagellidea, Dinoflagellidia, Dinokontae, Dinomastigota, Dinomonadea, Dinophyceae, Dinophycidae, Dinophyta, Dinotrichales, Dinotrichineae, Endoflagellatophycidae, Kolkwitziellales, Mesocaryota, Peridineae, Peridiniaea, Peridinieae, Peridinina, Peridiniophyceae, Peridinophyceae, Phytodinierae, Phytodinozoa, Pyrrhophycophyta, Pyrrhophyta, Pyrrophyta, Rhizodineae, Rhizodininae, Thecatales]
''Dogelodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 [=''Collinella'' Cachon 1964 ''nec'' Schmidt 1879 ''nec'' Duda 1918 ''nec'' Chatton & Pérard 1919]
''Dogelodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 [=''Collinella'' Cachon 1964 ''nec'' Schmidt 1879 ''nec'' Duda 1918 ''nec'' Chatton & Pérard 1919]
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''Halophilodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 [=''Haematodinium'' Schiller 1956 ''non Hematodinium'' Chatton & Poisson 1930]
''Halophilodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 [=''Haematodinium'' Schiller 1956 ''non Hematodinium'' Chatton & Poisson 1930]
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''Halophilodinium gessneri'' (Schiller) Loeblich & Loeblich 1968 [=''Haematodinium gessneri'' Schiller 1956]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki>''Paralecaniella indentata'' (Deflandre & Cookson) Cookson & Eisenack 1970 [=''Epicephalopyxis indentata'' Deflandre & Cookson 1955]
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''Keppenodinium'' Loeblich & Loeblich 1966 [=''Hollandella'' Cachon 1964 ''non'' Gill 1901]
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Phytodiniaceae [Amoebodiniaceae, Amoebodinidae, Cystodiniaceae, Cystodiniidae, Dinamoebaceae, Dinamoebidiaceae, Dinocapsaceae, Dinococcaceae, Dinococcidae, Gloeodiniaceae, Gloeodinidae, Hemidiniaceae, Hypnodiniaceae, Stylodiniaceae]
Phytodiniaceae [Amoebodiniaceae, Amoebodinidae, Cystodiniaceae, Cystodiniidae, Dinamoebaceae, Dinamoebidiaceae, Dinocapsaceae, Dinococcaceae, Dinococcidae, Gloeodiniaceae, Gloeodinidae, Hemidiniaceae, Hypnodiniaceae, Stylodiniaceae]
Line 244: Line 157:
Syndiniales [Coccidinea, Coccidiniales, Coelomastigina, Duboscquodinida, Syndina, Syndinea, Syndinida, Syndinina, Syndiniophyceae, Syndiniophycidae]
Syndiniales [Coccidinea, Coccidiniales, Coelomastigina, Duboscquodinida, Syndina, Syndinea, Syndinida, Syndinina, Syndiniophyceae, Syndiniophycidae]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of genus indicated
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<nowiki>*</nowiki>''Wanea spectabilis'' (Deflandre & Cookson) Cookson & Eisenack 1958 [=''Epicephalopyxis spectabilis'' Deflandre & Cookson 1955]
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
== References ==
== References ==
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Anderson, DM, JJ Lively, EM Reardon, & CA Price (1985), Sinking characteristics of dinoflagellate cysts. ''Limnol. Oceanogr.'' 30: 1000.
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Anderson, D. M., J. J. Lively, E. M. Reardon & C. A. Price. 1985. Sinking characteristics of dinoflagellate cysts. ''Limnol. Oceanogr.'' 30: 1000.
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Brugerolle, G., G. Bricheux, H. Philippe & G. Coffe. 2002. ''Collodictyon triciliatum'' and ''Diphylleia rotans'' (=''Aulacomonas submarina'') form a new family of flagellates (Collodictyonidae) with tubular mitochondrial cristae that is phylogenetically distinct from other flagellate groups. ''Protist'' 153: 59-70.
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Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E. Chao. 2004. Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.) ''European Journal of Protistology'' 40: 185-212.
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Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. ''Biological Reviews'' 73: 203-266.
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Clowes, C. D. 1985. ''Stoveracysta'', a new gonyaulacacean dinoflagellate genus from the upper Eocene and lower Oligocene of New Zealand. ''Palynology'' 9: 27-36.
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Cavalier-Smith, T. 2002. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. ''International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology'' 52: 297-354.
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Dale, B. 1996. Dinoflagellate cyst ecology: modelling and geological applications, in J Jansonius & DC McGregor [eds.], ''Palynology: Principles and Applications''. ''Am. Assoc. Stratigr. Palynologists Found.'', 3: 1249–1275.
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Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of centrohelid heliozoa, a novel lineage of bikont eukaryotes that arose by ciliary loss. ''Journal of Molecular Evolution'' 56: 387-396.
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Elsik, W. C. 1977. ''Paralecaniella indentata'' (Defl. & Cooks. 1955) Cookson & Eisenack 1970 and allied dinocysts. ''Palynology'' 1: 95-102.
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Clowes, CD (1985), ''Stoveracysta'', a new gonyaulacacean dinoflagellate genus from the upper Eocene and lower Oligocene of New Zealand. ''Palynology'' 9: 27-36.
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Evitt, W. R. 1985. ''Sporopollenin dinoflagellate cysts -- their morphology and interpretation''. ''Am. Assoc. Strat. Palynologists Found.'', 333 pp.
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Cruickshank, A. R. I., & R. E. Fordyce. 2003. A new marine reptile (Sauropterygia) from New Zealand: Further evidence for a Late Cretaceous austral radiation of cryptoclidid plesiosaurs. ''Palaeontology'' 45 (3): 557-575.
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Curds, C. R. 1979. Group phenomena in the phylum Protozoa. In ''Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms'' (G. Larwood & B. R. Rosen, eds.) pp. 29-37. Academic Press: London.
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Dale, B (1996), Dinoflagellate cyst ecology: modelling and geological applications, in J Jansonius & DC McGregor [eds.], ''Palynology: Principles and Applications''. ''Am. Assoc. Stratigr. Palynologists Found.'', 3: 1249–1275.
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Evitt, WR (1985), ''Sporopollenin dinoflagellate cysts -- their morphology and interpretation''. ''Am. Assoc. Strat. Palynologists Found.'', 333 pp.
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Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. ''Micropaleontology Special Publication'' 7: i-viii, 1-351.
Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. ''Micropaleontology Special Publication'' 7: i-viii, 1-351.
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Friedrich, O., & K. J. S. Meier. 2003. Stable isotope indication for the cyst formation depth of Campanian/Maastrichtian calcareous dinoflagellates. ''Micropaleontology'' 49 (4): 375-380.
 
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Gottschling, M., H. Keupp, J. Plötner, R. Knop, H. Willems & M. Kirsch. 2005. Phylogeny of calcareous dinoflagellates as inferred from ITS and ribosomal sequence data. ''Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution'' 36: 444-455.
Hotton, CL, FM Hueber, DH Griffing, & JS Bridge (2001), Early Terrestrial Plant Environments: An Example from the Emsian of Gaspé, Canada, in PG Gensel & D Edwards [eds.] ''Plants Invade the Land''. Columbia Univ. Press: pp. 179-203.
Hotton, CL, FM Hueber, DH Griffing, & JS Bridge (2001), Early Terrestrial Plant Environments: An Example from the Emsian of Gaspé, Canada, in PG Gensel & D Edwards [eds.] ''Plants Invade the Land''. Columbia Univ. Press: pp. 179-203.
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Ibrahim, M. I. A. 2002. Late Albian-Middle Cenomanian palynofacies and palynostratigraphy, Abu Gharadig-5 well, Western Desert, Egypt. ''Cretaceous Research'' 23: 775-788.
 
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Jacobsen, S., K. Lüning & F. Goulard. 2003. Circadian changes in relative abundance of two photosynthetic transcripts in the marine macroalga ''Kappaphycus alvarezii'' (Rhodophyta). ''Journal of Phycology'' 39: 888-896.
 
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Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002a. Smelts. Family Osmeridae. In ''Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine'' (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds.) 3rd ed. pp. 162-170. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.
 
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Klein-MacPhee, G. 2002b. Porcupinefishes. Family Diodontidae. In ''Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine'' (B. B. Collette & G. Klein-MacPhee, eds.) 3rd ed. pp. 601-602. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.
 
Knoll, AH (1996), Archean and proterozoic paleontology, in J Jansonius & DC McGregor [eds.], ''Palynology: Principles and Applications''. ''Am. Assoc. Stratigr. Palynologists Found.'' 1: 51-80.
Knoll, AH (1996), Archean and proterozoic paleontology, in J Jansonius & DC McGregor [eds.], ''Palynology: Principles and Applications''. ''Am. Assoc. Stratigr. Palynologists Found.'' 1: 51-80.
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Leander, B. S., R. E. Clopton & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Phylogeny of gregarines (Apicomplexa) as inferred from small-subunit rDNA and β-tubulin. ''International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology'' 53: 345-354.
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Lee, J. J., R. Olea, M. Cevasco, X. Pochon, M. Correia, M. Shpigel & J. Pawlowski. 2003. A marine dinoflagellate, ''Amphidinium eilatiensis'' n. sp., from the benthos of a mariculture sedimentation pond in Eilat, Israel. ''Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology'' 50 (6): 439-448.
 
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Mendelson, CV (1993), Acritarchs and prasinophytes, in JH Lipps [ed.], ''Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists''. Blackwell Scientific, pp 77-104.
Mendelson, CV (1993), Acritarchs and prasinophytes, in JH Lipps [ed.], ''Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists''. Blackwell Scientific, pp 77-104.
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Taylor, F. J. R. 1987. General and marine ecosystems. In F. J. R. Taylor & U. Pollingher. Ecology of dinoflagellates. In F. J. R. Taylor [ed.], ''The Biology of Dinoflagellates''. ''Botanical Monographs'' 21: 399-502.
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Vallejo, C., P. A. Hochuli, W. Winkler & K. von Salis. 2002. Palynological and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Napo Group in the Pungarayacu 30 well, sub-Andean zone, Ecuador. ''Cretaceous Research'' 23: 845-859.
 
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Wright, A.-D. G., & A. Colorni. 2002. Taxonomic re-assignment of ''Cryptocaryon irritans'', a marine fish parasite. ''European Journal of Protistology'' 37: 375-378.
 
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Zhukova, N. V. 2003. A biochemical approach for assessment of the diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates. ''Russian Journal of Marine Biology'' 29 (5): 328-332.
 
'''Credits'''
'''Credits'''
-
(c) Chris Clowes 2003 - [http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/Index.html Peripatus Home Page], dendrogram CKT070801
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(c) Chris Clowes 2003 - [http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/Index.html Peripatus Home Page], dendrogram [[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 02:30, 11 October 2009 (UTC)

Latest revision as of 08:42, 17 June 2011

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