Dinosauria

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* Metatarsals elongate and function as part of pes.
* Metatarsals elongate and function as part of pes.
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==Discussion==
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Hi, I'm Paul Gamache
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The limiting factor is that muscles contract only about 30% of their length. Increasing muscle length therefore increases motion of the bone.
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The tetrapod model of the pelvic girdle consists of a simple, tri-radiate structure. Pubis, ilium and ischium meet at Y-shaped junction. The acetabulum is located at the junction, and head of femur extends outward at 90° along its long axis. Protraction: Pubis extends antero-ventrally. Muscles insert on femur (pubofemoral) and protract (forward) it. Retraction: Tail (and/or ischium?) extends posteriorly and retract femur (caudofemoral). Abduction: Ilium extends posteriorly and muscles inserting on femur abduct it towards mid-line. Basic Tetrapod pelvis is plate-like. Extensions of pelvic bones are relatively small, and ilium articulates with only 1-2 vertebrae in sacrum. Muscles to pubis and ischium extend ventrally, countered to some extend by iliofemoral muscles.
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The problem is that as the femur rotated downwards to become more vertical, the length of the muscle running from the pubis and ischium shortened relative to the length of the femur.
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The solution common to all dinosaurs is an open acetabulum with bracing dorsally. Saurischians compounded on this with an extended pubis an ischium and rotated pubis antero-dorsally. Early ornithischians retroverted pubis, having it parallel to the ischium, and protracted the femur by attachment to anterior extension of ileum (see image). Later ornithischians secondarily developed an anterior projection of the pubis, as well as retaining the retroverted shaft.
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==Phylogeny==
==Phylogeny==

Revision as of 14:54, 26 February 2010

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