Giraffidae

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The earliest giraffids have been recorded from the early Miocene of Africa, but belong to taxa (''[[Zarafa]]'' and ''[[Prolibytherium]]'') whose inclusion in the Giraffidae is controversial - Hamilton (1978) synonymised ''Zarafa'' with the [[Climacoceratidae|climacoceratid]] ''[[Canthumeryx]]'', while ''Prolibytherium'' (assigned to the Sivatheriinae by Churcher, 1978) possesses preorbital fossae, a plesiomorphic feature that is otherwise absent from giraffids. The earliest well-accepted giraffid, ''[[Palaeotragus primaevus]]'', comes from the middle Miocene of Africa. Even if one discounts the early Miocene taxa, the presence of the earliest members of the family (including those of Palaeotraginae, ''Giraffa'' and possibly Sivatheriinae) in Africa strongly supports an African origin for the family. Members of all three subfamilies spread into Eurasia in the late Miocene or early [[Pliocene]]. Palaeotraginae other than ''Okapia'' did not persist past the end of the Pliocene. Sivatheriinae probably became extinct during or shortly after the [[Pleistocene]], while ''Giraffa'' became extinct in Eurasia during the Pleistocene.
The earliest giraffids have been recorded from the early Miocene of Africa, but belong to taxa (''[[Zarafa]]'' and ''[[Prolibytherium]]'') whose inclusion in the Giraffidae is controversial - Hamilton (1978) synonymised ''Zarafa'' with the [[Climacoceratidae|climacoceratid]] ''[[Canthumeryx]]'', while ''Prolibytherium'' (assigned to the Sivatheriinae by Churcher, 1978) possesses preorbital fossae, a plesiomorphic feature that is otherwise absent from giraffids. The earliest well-accepted giraffid, ''[[Palaeotragus primaevus]]'', comes from the middle Miocene of Africa. Even if one discounts the early Miocene taxa, the presence of the earliest members of the family (including those of Palaeotraginae, ''Giraffa'' and possibly Sivatheriinae) in Africa strongly supports an African origin for the family. Members of all three subfamilies spread into Eurasia in the late Miocene or early [[Pliocene]]. Palaeotraginae other than ''Okapia'' did not persist past the end of the Pliocene. Sivatheriinae probably became extinct during or shortly after the [[Pleistocene]], while ''Giraffa'' became extinct in Eurasia during the Pleistocene.
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==Phylogeny==
 
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[[Giraffoidea|<==]]Giraffidae
 
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    |  ''i. s.'': ''Deccenatherium pachecoi'' Crusafont-Pairo 1952
 
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    |--Sivatheriinae
 
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    |    |--''Bramatherium''
 
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    |    |--''Hydaspitherium''
 
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    |    |--''Vishnutherium''
 
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<!--    |    |--''Prolibytherium'' Arambourg 1961
 
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    |    |    `--''P. magnieri'' Arambourg 1961-->
 
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    |    |--''Helladotherium'' Gaudry 1860
 
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    |    |    `--''H. duvernoyi'' Gaudry 1860
 
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    |    `--''Sivatherium'' Falconer & Cautley 1832 (see below for synonymy)
 
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    |        |--''S. giganteum''
 
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    |        |--''S. hendeyi'' Harris 1976
 
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    |        `--''S. maurusium'' (Pomel 1892) (see below for synonymy)
 
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    |--Palaeotraginae
 
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    |    |--''Zarafa'' Hamilton 1973
 
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    |    |    `--*''Z. zelteni'' Hamilton 1973
 
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    |    `--+--''Giraffokeryx'' Pilgrim 1910
 
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    |      |    `--''G. punjabiensis'' Pilgrim 1910
 
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    |      |--+--''Okapia'' Lankester 1901 [Okapini]
 
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    |      |  |    `--''O. johnstoni''
 
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    |      |  `--''Samotherium'' Forsyth Major 1888 (see below for synonymy)
 
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    |      |      |--''S. africanum'' Churcher 1970
 
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    |      |      |--''S. boissieri''
 
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    |      |      `--''S. sinensis'' (Schlosser 1903)
 
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    |      `--''Palaeotragus'' Gaudry 1861 [incl. ''Achtiaria'' Borissiak 1914]
 
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    |            |--''P. expectans''
 
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    |            |--''P. germaini'' Arambourg 1959
 
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    |            |--''P. microdon'' (Koken 1885)
 
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    |            |--''P. primaevus'' Churcher 1970
 
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    |            |--''P. quadricornis''
 
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    |            |--''P. rouenii''
 
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    |            `--''P. tungurensis''
 
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    `--''Giraffa'' Brisson 1756 (see below for synonymy)
 
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        |--''G. attica''
 
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        |--''G. camelopardalis'' Linnaeus 1758
 
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        |    |--''G. c. camelopardalis''
 
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        |    |--''G. c. angolensis''
 
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        |    |--''G. c. antiquorum''
 
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        |    |--''G. c. goraffa''
 
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        |    |--''G. c. peralta''
 
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        |    |--''G. c. reticulata''
 
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        |    |--''G. c. rothschildi''
 
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        |    |--''G. c. thornicrofti''
 
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        |    `--''G. c. tippelskirchi''
 
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        |--''G. gracilis'' Arambourg 1947
 
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        |--''G. jumae'' Leakey 1965
 
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        |--''G. priscilla'' Pilgrim 1910
 
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        |--''G. punjabiensis''
 
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        |--''G. pygmaea'' Harris 1976 [=''G. pygmaeus'']
 
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        |--''G. sivalensis'' [incl. ''Camelopardalis affinis'']
 
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        `--''G. stillei'' (Dietrich 1941) [=''Okapia stillei'']
 
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''Giraffa'' Brisson 1756 [incl. ''Camelopardalis'' Schreber 1784, ''Orasius'' Oken 1816; Giraffinae, Giraffini]
 
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''Samotherium'' Forsyth Major 1888 [incl. ''Alcicephalus'' Rodler & Weithofer 1890, ''Chersenotherium'' Alexajew 1916, ''Shansitherium'' Killgus 1922]
 
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''Sivatherium'' Falconer & Cautley 1832 [incl. ''Griquatherium'' Haughton 1922, ''Indratherium'' Pilgrim 1910, ''Libytherium'' Pomel 1892, ''Orangiatherium'' van Hoepen 1932]
 
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''Sivatherium maurusium'' (Pomel 1892) [=''Libytherium maurusium''; incl. ''Griquatherium cingulatum'' Haughton 1922, ''Helladotherium olduvaiense'' Hopwood 1934, ''Libytherium olduvaiense'', ''Sivatherium olduvaiense'', ''Orangiatherium vanrhyni'' van Hoepen 1932]
 
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
 
== References ==
== References ==
Churcher, C. S. 1978. Giraffidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 509-535. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
Churcher, C. S. 1978. Giraffidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 509-535. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
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Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. ''Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition)'' 78 (1): 8-14.
 
Hamilton, W. R. 1978. Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 496-508. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
Hamilton, W. R. 1978. Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 496-508. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
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Morales, J., D. Soria & M. Pickford. 1999. New stem giraffoid ruminants from the early and middle Miocene of Namibia. ''Geodiversitas'' 21 (2): 229-253.
 
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Pellew, R. A. 1984. Giraffe and okapi. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 94-101. Torstar Books: New York.
 
'''Credits'''
'''Credits'''
[[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 19:16, 4 June 2008 (PDT)
[[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 19:16, 4 June 2008 (PDT)

Latest revision as of 06:49, 8 November 2012

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