Lagenida

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(taxa to taxonomy section, new section: dendrogram.)
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'''Lagenida''' are an order of [[calcareous]] [[benthic]] [[Foraminifera|foraminifers]] closely related to, and possibly derived from within, the [[Palaeozoic]] [[Fusulinida]]. Lagenides first appeared during the [[Carboniferous]], but did not become a significant part of the fauna until the latter part of the [[Permian]], when the fusulinides underwent a sharp decline before their extinction at the end of the Permian (Groves ''et al.'', 2003). Today, the lagenides include about 120 living genera, and are one of the major living groups of calcareous foraminifers after [[Miliolida]] and [[Rotaliida]].
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'''Lagenida''' are an order of calcareous [[benthic]] [[Foraminifera|foraminifers]] closely related to, and possibly derived from within, the [[Palaeozoic]] [[Fusulinida]]. Lagenides first appeared during the [[Carboniferous]], but did not become a significant part of the fauna until the latter part of the [[Permian]], when the fusulinides underwent a sharp decline before their extinction at the end of the Permian (Groves ''et al.'', 2003). Today, the lagenides include about 120 living genera, and are one of the major living groups of calcareous foraminifers after [[Miliolida]] and [[Rotaliida]].
==Description==
==Description==
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'''Age:''' [[Moscovian]] (later [[Carboniferous]]) to [[Recent]].
'''Age:''' [[Moscovian]] (later [[Carboniferous]]) to [[Recent]].
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'''Description:''' (from [http://ethomas.web.wesleyan.edu/BFTAXONOMY.HTM Thomas, 2005] and Groves ''et al.'', 2003) [[Test]] low Mg calcite, [[hyaline]]; pores, 1 or many chambers, [[uniserial]] or [[planispiral]]; [[monolamellar]], usually [[radial]] wall structure.
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'''Description:''' (from [http://ethomas.web.wesleyan.edu/BFTAXONOMY.HTM Thomas, 2005] and Groves ''et al.'', 2003) [[Test]] low Mg calcite, hyaline; pores, 1 or many chambers, uniserial or planispiral; monolamellar, usually radial wall structure.
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'''Comments:''' The Lagenida after primarily distinguished from the closely related (and probably ancestral) Fusulinida by their possession of a hyaline-radial shell rather than the [[microgranular]] shell of the Fusulinida. Studies of the ultrastructure of the earliest genus of Lagenida, ''[[Syzrania]]'', show that this change in cell structure was achieved by the addition of a hyaline-radial layer over the outside of the microgranular shell, followed by the loss of the microgranular layer (Groves ''et al.'', 2003, 2004). ''Syzrania'' includes species both with and without the microgranular layer, and is probably [[paraphyletic]] and ancestral to all other lagenides (Groves ''et al.'', 2003). Because of this difference in shell structure, some authors have recommended excluding ''Syzrania'' (or at least some species thereof) from the Lagenida, but this seems more a matter of taste than of any actual disagreement over relationships.
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'''Comments:''' The Lagenida after primarily distinguished from the closely related (and probably ancestral) Fusulinida by their possession of a hyaline-radial shell rather than the microgranular shell of the Fusulinida. Studies of the ultrastructure of the earliest genus of Lagenida, ''[[Syzrania]]'', show that this change in cell structure was achieved by the addition of a hyaline-radial layer over the outside of the microgranular shell, followed by the loss of the microgranular layer (Groves ''et al.'', 2003, 2004). ''Syzrania'' includes species both with and without the microgranular layer, and is probably [[paraphyletic]] and ancestral to all other lagenides (Groves ''et al.'', 2003). Because of this difference in shell structure, some authors have recommended excluding ''Syzrania'' (or at least some species thereof) from the Lagenida, but this seems more a matter of taste than of any actual disagreement over relationships.
==Taxonomy ==
==Taxonomy ==
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'''Higher, inclusive taxa'''<br>
Kingdom:[[Protista]], or [[Rhizaria]] <br>
Kingdom:[[Protista]], or [[Rhizaria]] <br>
Phylum: [[Granuloreticulosa]], or [[Retaria]]<br>  
Phylum: [[Granuloreticulosa]], or [[Retaria]]<br>  
Class:[[Foraminifera]], or in some taxonomies, a phylum <br>
Class:[[Foraminifera]], or in some taxonomies, a phylum <br>
Order: '''Lagenida''' (=Lagenina) <br>
Order: '''Lagenida''' (=Lagenina) <br>
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Families:<br>
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:[[Lagenidae]]
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'''Suprageneric subtaxa''' <br>
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:[[Nodosariidae]]
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Superfamily: [[Robuloidacea]]<br>
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:[[Geinitzinidae]]
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: Fam. [[Robuloididae]]<br>
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:[[Protonodosariidae]].
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: Fam. [[Ichthyolariidae]]<br>
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: Fam. [[Partisaniidae]] <br>
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: Fam. [[Syzraniidae]] <br>
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Superfamily: [[Nodosariacea]]<br>
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: Fam. [[Nodosariidae]]<br>
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: Fam. [[Lagenidae]]<br>
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: Fam. [[Vaginulinidae]]<br>
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: Fam. [[Polymorphinidae]]<br>
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: Fam. [[Ellipsolagenidae]]<br>
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: Fam. [[Glandulinidae]] <br>
==Lagenid dendrogram==
==Lagenid dendrogram==
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  [[Rotaliina|<==]]Lagenida [Lagenina, Syzraniidae]
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  [[Foraminifera|<==]]Lagenida [Lagenina, Syzraniidae]
     |  ''i. s.'': ''Lunucammina'' Spandel 1898 (''n. d.'')
     |  ''i. s.'': ''Lunucammina'' Spandel 1898 (''n. d.'')
     |        ''Polarisella'' Mamet & Pinard 1992
     |        ''Polarisella'' Mamet & Pinard 1992

Latest revision as of 13:48, 1 September 2012

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