Metazoa phylogeny

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(revised dendrogram)
(revised dendrogram)
 
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Bilateria (as shown below), which would require shared characters between the two to be [[homoplasy|homoplastic]]. While this may seem unlikely at first glance, [[Stromatoveris|fossil evidence]] has suggested that Ctenophora may be derived from sessile [[Ediacaran]] ancestors, making convergence with Bilateria more likely.
Bilateria (as shown below), which would require shared characters between the two to be [[homoplasy|homoplastic]]. While this may seem unlikely at first glance, [[Stromatoveris|fossil evidence]] has suggested that Ctenophora may be derived from sessile [[Ediacaran]] ancestors, making convergence with Bilateria more likely.
-
The other notable difference is in the position of ''[[Trichoplax]]'' ([[Placozoa]]). This simple animal has been thought to be morphologically intermediate between Porifera and Eumetazoa ([[Metazoa|main page]]). However, Cavalier-Smith and Chao (2003) found ''Trichoplax'' to be nested within [[Cnidaria]] in their molecular phylogeny, and it has been suggested that ''Trichoplax'' is derived from a [[neoteny|neotenous]] cnidarian larva.
+
Another notable point of contention is the position of ''[[Trichoplax]]'' ([[Placozoa]]). This simple animal has been thought to be morphologically intermediate between Porifera and Eumetazoa ([[Metazoa|main page]]). However, Cavalier-Smith and Chao (2003) found ''Trichoplax'' to be nested within [[Cnidaria]] in their molecular phylogeny, and it has been suggested that ''Trichoplax'' is derived from a [[neoteny|neotenous]] cnidarian larva.
-
  [[Opisthokonta|<==]]Animalia [Diploblastica, Metazoa, Parazoa, Porifera, Radiata, Spongiaria, Vendobionta]
+
  [[Opisthokonta|<==]]Animalia (see below for synonymy)
-
    |  ''i. s.'': ''Parapandorina raphospissa''
+
     |--[[Calcarea]] SCM06
-
    |        ''Namapoikia'' Wood, Grotzinger & Dickson 2002
+
     `--+--''Trichoplax'' C-SC03 [Placozoa SCM06]
-
    |          `--*''N. rietoogensis'' Wood, Grotzinger & Dickson 2002
+
      |    `--''T. adhaerens'' C-SC03
-
    |        ''Yaworipora''
+
      `--+--[[Ctenophora]] DH08
-
    |        ''Labyrinthus''
+
          `--+--[[Bilateria]] DH08
-
    |        ''Rosellatana''
+
            `--+--[[Cnidaria]] DH08
-
    |        ''Limnea luteola''
+
                `--Hyalospongiae C-S98
-
    |        ''Coleoloides typicalis'' Walcott 1889
+
                    |  ''i. s.'': [[Microcionidae]] C-SC03
-
    |        ''Purella'' Missarzhevsky 1974 [Purellidae]
+
                    |--[[Demospongiae]] DH08
-
    |          `--*''P. cristata'' Missarzhevsky 1974
+
                    `--Hexactinellida [Triaxonia] SCM06
-
    |        ''Maikhanella'' Zhegallo 1982
+
                          |--''Oopsacas minuta'' C-SC03
-
    |        ''Albinaria coerulea''
+
                          |--''Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni'' C0SC03
-
    |        ''Ventogyrus''
+
                          |--''Semperella schulzei'' F79
-
    |        ''Podolimirus''
+
                          `--''Hyalonema'' [Hyalonematidae] F79
-
    |        ''Swartpuntia''
+
                              |--''H. hozawai'' F79
-
    |        ''Calyptrina''
+
                              |--''H. molle'' Schulze 1904 BJ06
-
    |        ''Kimberella''
+
                              |--''H. proximum'' Schulze 1904 BJ06
-
    |        ''Diagramma labiosum''
+
                              |--''H. simile'' Schulze 1904 BJ06
-
    |        ''Neotricula aperta''
+
                              `--''H. valdiviae'' Schulze 1904 BJ06
-
    |        ''Tricula''
+
-
    |        ''Indoplanorbis exustus''
+
-
    |        ''Radix peregra''
+
-
    |        ''Uroteuthis noctiluca''
+
-
    |        ''Rondeletiola minor''
+
-
    |        ''Sepiolina nipponensis''
+
-
    |        ''Euprymna''
+
-
    |          |--''E. berryi''
+
-
    |          |--''E. hyllebergi''
+
-
    |          |--''E. morsei''
+
-
    |          |--''E. scolopes''
+
-
    |          `--''E. tasmanica''
+
-
    |        ''Cleisopus gloriamaris''
+
-
    |        ''Nowakia''
+
-
    |          |--''N. barrandei'' Boucek & Prantl 1959
+
-
    |          `--''N. otomari''
+
-
    |        ''[[Acanthastus]]'' Kozłowski 1948 [Acanthastida]
+
-
    |          |--*''A. luniewskii'' Kozłowski 1948
+
-
    |          |--''A. czyzewskii'' Kozłowski 1948
+
-
    |          |--''A. kobyleckii'' Kozłowski 1948
+
-
    |          |--''A. mazureki'' Kozłowski 1948
+
-
    |          `--''A. mizerjai'' Kozłowski 1948
+
-
    |        ''Ainiktozoon''
+
-
    |        ''Amiella ornata'' Walcott 1911
+
-
    |        ''Hirnantia'' Lamont 1935
+
-
    |        ''Foliomena'' Havlicek 1952
+
-
    |        ''Caveasphaera costata''
+
-
    |        ''Megasphaera''
+
-
    |          |--''M. inornata''
+
-
    |          `--''M. ornata''
+
-
    |        ''Megaclonophycus onustus''
+
-
    |        ''Sinocyclocyclicus guizhouensis''
+
-
    |        ''Spiralicellula bulbifera''
+
-
    |        ''Trimerotropis citrina''
+
-
    |        ''Eurytholia'' Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001
+
-
    |          |--*''E. prattensis'' Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001
+
-
    |          `--''E. elibata'' Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001
+
-
    |        ''Dimorphoconus granulatus'' Donovan & Paul 1985
+
-
    |        [[Stromatoporoidea]]
+
-
    |          |--''Keega''
+
-
    |          `--''Clathrocoilona spissa''
+
-
    |        ''Dinomischus isolatus''
+
-
    |        ''Eldonia ludwigi''
+
-
    |        ''Spriggina floundersi''
+
-
    |        ''Cervulus''
+
-
    |          |--''C. reevesii''
+
-
    |          `--''C. vaginalis''
+
-
    |        ''Jennaria pulchra'' Rieger 1991
+
-
    |        ''Amauroceras ferrugineum''
+
-
    |        ''Declinognathodus noduliferus'' (Ellison & Graves 1941)
+
-
    |        ''Pseudomytiloides dubius''
+
-
    |        ''Asbestopluma'' Norman 1882 [Cladorhizidae]
+
-
    |          `--''A. lycopodium'' (Levinsen 1886)
+
-
    |        Acarnidae
+
-
    |          |--''Acarnus''
+
-
    |          |--''Cornulum dubium'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          `--''Damiria simplex'' Keller 1891 [incl. ''D. simplex fistulata'' Hentschel 1912]
+
-
    |        ''Actinostromaria''
+
-
    |        ''Parastromatopora''
+
-
    |        ''Gilletia''
+
-
    |        ''Sestromella''
+
-
    |        ''Chaetetopsis''
+
-
    |        ''Ellipsactinia''
+
-
    |        ''Sphaeractinia''
+
-
    |        ''Doryderma''
+
-
    |        ''Elasmoiera''
+
-
    |        ''Hymeniacidon perleve''
+
-
    |        ''Tethya'' Lamarck 1814 [incl. ''Donatia'' Nardo 1833; Tethyidae]
+
-
    |          |--''T. aurantium'' (Pallas 1766) [incl. ''T. limski'' Müller & Zahn 1968]
+
-
    |          |--''T. clavigera'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          |--''T. lyncurium''
+
-
    |          |--''T. maza'' Selenka 1893
+
-
    |          `--''‘Donatia’ tylota'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        *''Crambe crambe''
+
-
    |        ''Ceratoporella nicolsoni''
+
-
    |        ''Disyringa dissimilis''
+
-
    |        ''Poterion neptuni''
+
-
    |        Callyspongiidae
+
-
    |          |--''Callyspongia''
+
-
    |          |    |--''C. plicifera''
+
-
    |          |    `--''C. vaginalis''
+
-
    |          `--''Siphonochalina''
+
-
    |                |--''S. fascigera'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |                `--''S. siphonella'' Lévi 1965
+
-
    |        ''Holopsamma turbo'' Carter 1885 [=''Sigmatella turbo'']
+
-
    |        ''Plakina'' [Plakinidae]
+
-
    |          |--''P. monolopha''
+
-
    |          `--''P. trilopha''
+
-
    |                |--''P. t. trilopha''
+
-
    |                `--''P. t. antarctica'' von Lendenfeld 1907
+
-
    |        ''Psammoclemma'' Marshall 1880 [incl. ''Psammopemma'' Marshall 1880; Chondropsidae]
+
-
    |          |--''‘Psammopemma’ densum'' Marshall 1881 [incl. ''Holopsamma laevis'' Carter 1885]
+
-
    |          |--''‘Psammopemma’ durissimum''
+
-
    |          |    |--''P. d. durissimum''
+
-
    |          |    `--''P. d. grisea'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          `--''‘Psammopemma’ porosum'' Polejaff 1884
+
-
    |        ''Dysidea'' Johnston 1842 [incl. ''Spongelia'' Schmidt 1862; Dysideidae]
+
-
    |          |--''‘Spongelia’ fragilis''
+
-
    |          |    |--''S. f. fragilis''
+
-
    |          |    `--''S. f. clathrata'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          |--''‘Sarcocornea’ nodosa'' [=''Spongelia nodosa'']
+
-
    |          `--''‘Spongelia’ spinifera''
+
-
    |                |--''S. s. spinifera''
+
-
    |                `--''S. s. australis'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        ''Ochridaspongia''
+
-
    |        ''Microcordyla asteriae''
+
-
    |        ''Spheciospongia vesparium'' (Lamarck 1814)
+
-
    |        ''Ircinia'' Nardo 1833 [incl. ''Hircinia'' Nardo 1834]
+
-
    |          |--''‘Hircinia’ aruensis'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          |--''I. felix'' Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864
+
-
    |          |--''‘Hircinia’ pinna'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          |--''‘Hircinia’ spiculosa'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          `--''I. strobilina'' Lamarck 1816
+
-
    |        ''Stematumenia''
+
-
    |          |--''S. foetida''
+
-
    |          |--''S. strobilina''
+
-
    |          `--''S. variabilis''
+
-
    |        ''Astrosclera willeyana''
+
-
    |        Solenoporaceae [Solenoporeae, Solenoporideae]
+
-
    |          |--*''Solenopora spongioides'' Dybowsky 1877
+
-
    |          `--''Parachaetetes'' Deninger 1906
+
-
    |        ''Hemectyon ferox''
+
-
    |        ''Vauxia gracilenta''
+
-
    |        ''Choia carteri''
+
-
    |        ''Pirania muricata''
+
-
    |        ''Eiffelia globosa''
+
-
    |        ''Acanthella'' [Dictyonellidae]
+
-
    |          |--''A. cavernosa''
+
-
    |          `--''A. euctimena'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        [[Archaeocyatha]]
+
-
    |        ''Speophilosoma''
+
-
    |          |--''S. koyama''
+
-
    |          `--''S. tottoriense''
+
-
    |        ''Lycocerus suturellus''
+
-
    |        ''Araragi enthea''
+
-
    |        ''Buergeria buergeri''
+
-
    |        ''Parechthistatus gibber''
+
-
    |        ''Parapodisma setouchiensis''
+
-
    |        ''Arcuphantes''
+
-
    |          |--''A. hibanus''
+
-
    |          |--''A. iharai''
+
-
    |          |--''A. saitoi''
+
-
    |          `--''A. tsurusakii''
+
-
    |        ''Cynops pyrrhogaster''
+
-
    |        ''‘Leptophyllus’'' Quenstedt 1876
+
-
    |        Niphatidae
+
-
    |          |--''Pachychalina diffusa''
+
-
    |          |    |--''P. d. diffusa''
+
-
    |          |    `--''P. d. affinis'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          `--''Gelliodes''
+
-
    |                |--''G. gracilis'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |                |--''G. hamata'' Thiele 1903
+
-
    |                |--''G. macrosigma'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |                |--''G. obtusa'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |                `--''G. porosa'' Thiele 1903
+
-
    |        ''Periphragella'' [Euretidae]
+
-
    |          `--''P. antarctica'' Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004
+
-
    |        Rossellidae
+
-
    |          |--''Schaudinnia rosea'' (Fristedt 1887) [incl. ''S. arctica'' Schulze 1900]
+
-
    |          |--*''Trichasterina borealis'' Schulze 1900
+
-
    |          `--''Caulophacus''
+
-
    |                |--''C.'' (''Caulodiscus'') ''brandti'' Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004
+
-
    |                |--''C. valdiviae'' Schulze 1904
+
-
    |                `--''C.'' (*''Oxydiscus'') ''weddelli'' Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004
+
-
    |        [[Raspailiidae]]
+
-
    |        ''Aplysina'' [Aplysinidae]
+
-
    |          `--''A. mollis''
+
-
    |                |--''A. m. mollis''
+
-
    |                `--''A. m. aruensis'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        Desmacellidae
+
-
    |          |--''Biemna''
+
-
    |          |    |--''B. aruensis'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          |    |--''B. humilis'' Thiele 1903
+
-
    |          |    |--''B. megalosigma'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          |    |    |--''B. m. megalosigma''
+
-
    |          |    |    `--''B. m. liposphaera'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          |    `--''B. truncata'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          `--''Tylodesma microstrongyla'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        ''Terpios fugax'' Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864
+
-
    |        ''[[Petrosia]]''
+
-
    |        [[Ancorinidae]]
+
-
    |        ''Iotrochota''
+
-
    |          |--''I. baculifera'' Ridley 1884
+
-
    |          `--''I. purpurea'' (Bowerbank 1875)
+
-
    |        ''Cerbaris'' Topsent 1898 [incl. ''Rhabdoploca'' Topsent 1904; Bubaridae]
+
-
    |          `--''‘Rhabdoploca’ topsenti'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        Darwinellidae
+
-
    |          |--''Darwinella australiensis'' Carter 1885
+
-
    |          `--''Dendrilla''
+
-
    |                |--''D. lacunosa'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |                |--''D. lendenfeldi'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |                `--''D. mertoni'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        Thorectidae
+
-
    |          |--''Fasciospongia'' Burton 1934 [incl. ''Stelospongia'' Schulze 1879 (''nom. inv.'')]
+
-
    |          |    |--''‘Stelospongia’ cava'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          |    `--''‘Stelospongia’ euplectella'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          |--''Aplysinopsis reticulata'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |          `--''Hyrtios'' Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864 [incl. ''Dysideopsis'' von Lendenfeld 1888]
+
-
    |                `--''‘Dysideopsis’ topsenti'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        ''Monorhaphis'' [Monorhaphididae]
+
-
    |          `--*''M. chuni'' Schulze 1904 [incl. ''M. dives'' Schulze 1904]
+
-
    |        Pachastrellidae
+
-
    |          |--''Pachastrella''
+
-
    |          |    |--''P. chuni'' von Lendenfeld 1907
+
-
    |          |    `--''P. tenuipilosa'' von Lendenfeld 1907
+
-
    |          `--''Thenea''
+
-
    |                |--''T. megaspina'' von Lendenfeld 1907
+
-
    |                |--''T. multiformis'' von Lendenfeld 1907
+
-
    |                |--''T. pendula'' von Lendenfeld 1907
+
-
    |                `--''T. valdiviae'' von Lendenfeld 1907
+
-
    |        Theonellidae
+
-
    |          |--''Discodermia claviformis'' Kieschnick 1896 (''n. d.'')
+
-
    |          `--''Theonella''
+
-
    |                |--''T. conica'' (Kieschnick 1896) [=''Discodermia conica'']
+
-
    |                |--''T. incerta'' Thiele 1900
+
-
    |                `--''T. lacerata'' von Lendenfeld 1907
+
-
    |        Chondrillidae
+
-
    |          |--''Chondrosia''
+
-
    |          |    |--''C. corticata'' Thiele 1900
+
-
    |          |    `--''C. debilis'' Thiele 1900
+
-
    |          `--''Chondrilla''
+
-
    |                |--''C. australiensis'' Carter 1873
+
-
    |                |--''C. grandistellata'' Thiele 1900
+
-
    |                |--''C. jinensis'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |                |--''C. media'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |                `--''C. ternatensis'' Thiele 1900
+
-
    |        Hymedesmiidae
+
-
    |          |--''Hamigera'' [incl. ''Amoibodictya'']
+
-
    |          |    `--*''H. hamigera'' [incl. *''Amoibodictya forsteri'' Zahn, Müller & Müller 1977]
+
-
    |          `--''Hymedesmia mertoni'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        ''Desmanthus'' [incl. ''Lophacanthus non'' Stock 1880; Desmanthidae]
+
-
    |          |--''D. rhabdophorus'' (Hentschel 1912) [=*''Lophacanthus rhabdophorus'']
+
-
    |          `--''D. topsenti'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        ''Placospongia'' [Placospongiidae]
+
-
    |          `--''P. mixta'' Thiele 1900
+
-
    |        ''Dendropsis'' [Desmoxyidae]
+
-
    |          `--''D. mixta'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        ''Scleritoderma'' [Scleritodermatidae]
+
-
    |          `--''S. nodosum'' Thiele 1900
+
-
    |        *''Platylistrum'' [Pheronematidae]
+
-
    |          `--''P. platessa'' Schulze 1904
+
-
    |        ''Holascus'' [Euplectellidae]
+
-
    |          `--''H. pseudostellatus'' Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004
+
-
    |        ''Timea'' [Timeidae]
+
-
    |          `--''T. tetractis'' Hentschel 1912
+
-
    |        ''Sarostegia'' [incl. ''Ramella''; Farreidae]
+
-
    |          `--''S. occulata'' Topsent 1904 [incl. *''Ramella tubulosa'' Schulze 1904]
+
-
    |        ''Paracharnia dengyingensis''
+
-
    |        ''Sinotubulites baimatuoensis''
+
-
    |        ''Cloudina hartmannae''
+
-
    |        ''Pararenicola'' Wang 1982 [incl. ''Paleorhynchus'' Wang 1982]
+
-
    |          `--*''P. huaiyuanensis'' Wang 1982 (see below for synonymy)
+
-
     |         ''Protoarenicola'' Wang 1982
+
-
    |          `--*''P. baiguashanensis'' Wang 1982
+
-
    |--+--[[Calcarea]]
+
-
     `--Eumetazoa [Agnotozoa, Coelenterata]
+
-
    |      |--''Trichoplax'' [Placozoa]
+
-
    |      |    `--''T. adhaerens''
+
-
    |      `--+--[[Ctenophora]]
+
-
    |          `--+--[[Cnidaria]]
+
-
    |            `--[[Bilateria]]
+
-
    `--Hyalospongiae
+
-
        |  ''i. s.'': [[Microcionidae]]
+
-
        |--[[Demospongiae]]
+
-
        `--[[Hexactinellida]]
+
-
              |--''Oopsacas minuta''
+
-
              |--''Rhabdocalyptus dawsoni''
+
-
              |--''Hyalonema'' [Hyalonematidae]
+
-
              |    |--''H. hozawai''
+
-
              |    |--''H. molle'' Schulze 1904
+
-
              |    |--''H. proximum'' Schulze 1904
+
-
              |    |--''H. simile'' Schulze 1904
+
-
              |    `--''H. valdiviae'' Schulze 1904
+
-
              `--''Semperella schulzei''
+
-
<nowiki>*</nowiki>''Pararenicola huaiyuanensis'' Wang 1982 [incl. ''Paleorhynchus anhuiensis'' Wang 1982, ''Ruedemannella minuta'' Wang 1982, ''Paleolina tortuosa'' Wang 1982]
+
Animalia ''incertae sedis'':
 +
  ''Namapoikia'' Wood, Grotzinger & Dickson 2002 WGD02
 +
    `--*''N. rietoogensis'' Wood, Grotzinger & Dickson 2002 WGD02
 +
  ''Yaworipora'' WGD02
 +
  ''Rosellatana'' WGD02
 +
  ''Coleoloides typicalis'' Walcott 1890 [incl. ''C. trigeminatus'' Missarzhevsky ''in'' Rozanov ''et al.'' 1969] KB09
 +
  ''Purella'' Missarzhevsky 1974 [Purellidae] P02
 +
    `--*''P. cristata'' Missarzhevsky 1974 P02 [incl. ''P. antiqua'' (Abaimova 1976) KB09]
 +
  ''Albinaria coerulea'' NS03
 +
  ''Ventogyrus'' IF02
 +
  ''Podolimirus'' IF02
 +
  ''Swartpuntia'' IF02
 +
  ''Calyptrina'' IF02
 +
  ''Kimberella'' IF02
 +
  ''Diagramma labiosum'' LOL03
 +
  ''Neotricula aperta'' LO03
 +
  ''Indoplanorbis exustus'' LO03
 +
  ''Radix peregra'' LO03
 +
  ''Uroteuthis noctiluca'' NN03
 +
  ''Rondeletiola minor'' NN03
 +
  ''Sepiolina nipponensis'' NN03
 +
  ''Cleisopus gloriamaris'' NN03
 +
  ''Nowakia'' WL04
 +
    |--''N. acuaria'' NJ83
 +
    |--''N. barrandei'' Boucek & Prantl 1959 WL04
 +
    `--''N. otomari'' D02
 +
  ''Ainiktozoon'' WB85
 +
  ''Amiella ornata'' Walcott 1911 WB85
 +
  ''Hirnantia'' Lamont 1935 RZJ04
 +
  ''Foliomena'' Havlicek 1952 RZJ04
 +
  ''Caveasphaera costata'' X04
 +
  ''Megaclonophycus onustus'' X04
 +
  ''Sinocyclocyclicus guizhouensis'' X04
 +
  ''Spiralicellula bulbifera'' X04
 +
  ''Trimerotropis citrina'' D37
 +
  ''Eurytholia'' Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001 SHC01
 +
    |--*''E. prattensis'' Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001 SHC01
 +
    `--''E. elibata'' Sutton, Holmer & Cherns 2001 SHC01
 +
  ''Dimorphoconus granulatus'' Donovan & Paul 1985 SHC01
 +
  [[Stromatoporoidea]] VH01
 +
  ''Dinomischus isolatus'' CM98
 +
  ''Eldonia ludwigi'' CM98
 +
  ''Jennaria pulchra'' Rieger 1991 ZHT01
 +
  ''Amauroceras ferrugineum'' D01
 +
  ''Declinognathodus noduliferus'' (Ellison & Graves 1941) HM04
 +
  ''Pseudomytiloides dubius'' BL78
 +
  ''Asbestopluma'' Norman 1882 [Cladorhizidae] L01
 +
    `--''A. lycopodium'' (Levinsen 1886) L01
 +
  Acarnidae BJ06
 +
    |--''Acarnus'' LGJ03
 +
    |--''Cornulum dubium'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
    |--''Damiria simplex'' Keller 1891 [incl. ''D. simplex fistulata'' Hentschel 1912] BJ06
 +
    `--''Zyzzya'' FV09
 +
        |--''Z. criceta'' Schoenberg 2000 FV09
 +
        `--''Z. fuliginosa'' (Carter 1879) FV09
 +
  ''Actinostromaria'' HS02
 +
  ''Parastromatopora'' HS02
 +
  ''Gilletia'' HS02
 +
  ''Sestromella'' HS02
 +
  ''Chaetetopsis'' HS02
 +
  ''Ellipsactinia'' HS02
 +
  ''Sphaeractinia'' HS02
 +
  ''Doryderma'' HS02
 +
  ''Elasmoiera'' HS02
 +
  Crambeidae FV09
 +
    |--*''Crambe crambe'' F79
 +
    `--''Monanchora unguiculata'' (Dendy 1922) FV09
 +
  ''Ceratoporella nicolsoni'' F79
 +
  ''Disyringa dissimilis'' F79
 +
  ''Poterion neptuni'' F79
 +
  Callyspongiidae BJ06
 +
    |--''Siphonochalina'' BJ06
 +
    |    |--''S. fascigera'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
    |    `--''S. siphonella'' Lévi 1965 BJ06
 +
    `--''Callyspongia'' F79
 +
        |--''C. aerizusa'' Desqueyroux-Faúndez 1984 FV09
 +
        |--''C. plicifera'' C96
 +
        `--''C. vaginalis'' F79
 +
  ''Holopsamma turbo'' Carter 1885 [=''Sigmatella turbo''] T72
 +
  ''Psammoclemma'' Marshall 1880 [incl. ''Psammopemma'' Marshall 1880; Chondropsidae] BJ06
 +
    |--''‘Psammopemma’ densum'' Marshall 1881 [incl. ''Holopsamma laevis'' Carter 1885] T72
 +
    |--''‘Psammopemma’ durissimum'' BJ06
 +
    |    |--''P. d. durissimum'' BJ06
 +
    |    `--''P. d. grisea'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
    `--''‘Psammopemma’ porosum'' Polejaff 1884 T72
 +
  [[Dysideidae]] FV09
 +
  ''Ochridaspongia'' SV86
 +
  ''Microcordyla asteriae'' BK77
 +
  Irciniidae FV09
 +
    |--''Sarcotragus'' FV09
 +
    `--''Ircinia'' Nardo 1833 [incl. ''Hircinia'' Nardo 1834] BJ06
 +
        |--''‘Hircinia’ aruensis'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
        |--''I. felix'' Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864 D84
 +
        |--''‘Hircinia’ pinna'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
        |--''‘Hircinia’ spiculosa'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
        `--''I. strobilina'' Lamarck 1816 D84
 +
  ''Stematumenia'' MK83
 +
    |--''S. foetida'' MK83
 +
    |--''S. strobilina'' MK83
 +
    `--''S. variabilis'' MK83
 +
  ''Astrosclera willeyana'' VV77
 +
  ''Hemectyon ferox'' MH96
 +
  ''Vauxia gracilenta'' CM98
 +
  ''Choia carteri'' CM98
 +
  ''Pirania muricata'' CM98
 +
  ''Eiffelia globosa'' CM98
 +
  Dictyonellidae FV09
 +
    |--''Acanthella euctimena'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
    `--''Stylissa'' FV09
 +
        |--''S. carteri'' (Dendy 1889) FV09
 +
        `--''S. massa'' (Carter 1887) FV09
 +
  [[Archaeocyatha]] C-S98
 +
  ''Speophilosoma'' T07
 +
    |--''S. koyama'' T07
 +
    `--''S. tottoriense'' T07
 +
  ''Lycocerus suturellus'' T07
 +
  ''Araragi enthea'' T07
 +
  ''Buergeria buergeri'' T07
 +
  ''Parechthistatus gibber'' T07
 +
  ''Parapodisma setouchiensis'' T07
 +
  ''Arcuphantes'' T07
 +
    |--''A. hibanus'' T07
 +
    |--''A. iharai'' T07
 +
    |--''A. saitoi'' T07
 +
    `--''A. tsurusakii'' T07
 +
  ''‘Leptophyllus’'' Quenstedt 1876 ''non'' Hope 1842 FT93
 +
  [[Niphatidae]] BJ06
 +
  ''Periphragella'' [Euretidae] BJ06
 +
    `--''P. antarctica'' Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
 +
  Rossellidae BJ06
 +
    |--''Schaudinnia rosea'' (Fristedt 1887) [incl. ''S. arctica'' Schulze 1900] BJ06
 +
    |--*''Trichasterina borealis'' Schulze 1900 BJ06
 +
    `--''Caulophacus'' BJ06
 +
        |--''C.'' (''Caulodiscus'') ''brandti'' Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
 +
        |--''C. valdiviae'' Schulze 1904 BJ06
 +
        `--''C.'' (*''Oxydiscus'') ''weddelli'' Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
 +
  [[Raspailiidae]] BJ06
 +
  ''Aplysina'' [Aplysinidae] BJ06
 +
    `--''A. mollis'' BJ06
 +
        |--''A. m. mollis'' BJ06
 +
        `--''A. m. aruensis'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
  Desmacellidae BJ06
 +
    |--''Tylodesma microstrongyla'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
    `--''Biemna'' BJ06
 +
        |--''B. aruensis'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
        |--''B. fortis'' (Topsent 1897) FV09
 +
        |--''B. humilis'' Thiele 1903 BJ06
 +
        |--''B. megalosigma'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
        |    |--''B. m. megalosigma'' BJ06
 +
        |    `--''B. m. liposphaera'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
        `--''B. truncata'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
  ''Terpios fugax'' Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864 BJ06
 +
  [[Ancorinidae]] BJ06
 +
  ''Cerbaris'' Topsent 1898 [incl. ''Rhabdoploca'' Topsent 1904; Bubaridae] BJ06
 +
    `--''‘Rhabdoploca’ topsenti'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
  Darwinellidae BJ06
 +
    |--''Darwinella australiensis'' Carter 1885 BJ06
 +
    `--''Dendrilla'' BJ06
 +
        |--''D. lacunosa'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
        |--''D. lendenfeldi'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
        `--''D. mertoni'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
  [[Thorectidae]] BJ06
 +
  ''Monorhaphis'' [Monorhaphididae] BJ06
 +
    `--*''M. chuni'' Schulze 1904 [incl. ''M. dives'' Schulze 1904] BJ06
 +
  Pachastrellidae BJ06
 +
    |--''Pachastrella'' BJ06
 +
    |    |--''P. chuni'' von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
 +
    |    `--''P. tenuipilosa'' von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
 +
    `--''Thenea'' BJ06
 +
        |--''T. megaspina'' von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
 +
        |--''T. multiformis'' von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
 +
        |--''T. pendula'' von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
 +
        `--''T. valdiviae'' von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
 +
  Theonellidae BJ06
 +
    |--''Discodermia claviformis'' Kieschnick 1896 (''n. d.'') BJ06
 +
    `--''Theonella'' BJ06
 +
        |--''T. conica'' (Kieschnick 1896) [=''Discodermia conica''] BJ06
 +
        |--''T. incerta'' Thiele 1900 BJ06
 +
        |--''T. lacerata'' von Lendenfeld 1907 BJ06
 +
        `--''T. swinhoei'' Gray 1868 FV09
 +
  Hymedesmiidae BJ06
 +
    |--''Hymedesmia mertoni'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
    `--''Hamigera'' [incl. ''Amoibodictya''] BJ06
 +
        `--*''H. hamigera'' [incl. *''Amoibodictya forsteri'' Zahn, Müller & Müller 1977] BJ06
 +
  ''Desmanthus'' [incl. ''Lophacanthus non'' Stock 1880; Desmanthidae] BJ06
 +
    |--''D. rhabdophorus'' (Hentschel 1912) [=*''Lophacanthus rhabdophorus''] BJ06
 +
    `--''D. topsenti'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
  ''Placospongia'' [Placospongiidae] BJ06
 +
    |--''P. melobesioides'' Gray 1867 FV09
 +
    `--''P. mixta'' Thiele 1900 BJ06
 +
  Desmoxyidae FV09
 +
    |--''Dendropsis mixta'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
    |--''Higginsia mixta'' Hentschel 1912 FV09
 +
    `--''Myrmekioderma granulatum'' (Esper 1794) FV09
 +
  ''Scleritoderma'' [Scleritodermatidae] BJ06
 +
    `--''S. nodosum'' Thiele 1900 BJ06
 +
  ''Platylistrum'' [Pheronematidae] BJ06
 +
    `--*''P. platessa'' Schulze 1904 BJ06
 +
  ''Holascus'' [Euplectellidae] BJ06
 +
    `--''H. pseudostellatus'' Janussen, Tabachnick & Tendal 2004 BJ06
 +
  ''Timea'' [Timeidae] BJ06
 +
    `--''T. tetractis'' Hentschel 1912 BJ06
 +
  ''Sarostegia'' [incl. ''Ramella''; Farreidae] BJ06
 +
    `--''S. occulata'' Topsent 1904 [incl. *''Ramella tubulosa'' Schulze 1904] BJ06
 +
  ''Paracharnia dengyingensis'' XS05
 +
  ''Sinotubulites baimatuoensis'' XS05
 +
  ''Cloudina hartmannae'' XS05
 +
  ''Pararenicola'' Wang 1982 [incl. ''Paleorhynchus'' Wang 1982] SWZ86
 +
    `--*''P. huaiyuanensis'' Wang 1982 (see below for synonymy) SWZ86
 +
  ''Protoarenicola'' Wang 1982 SWZ86
 +
    `--*''P. baiguashanensis'' Wang 1982 SWZ86
 +
  ''Gunnarites antarcticus'' CT05
 +
  *''Aaptos aaptos'' HS01
 +
  ''Coleolus'' Hall 1876 [Coleoloidae] YH85
 +
    |--*''C. tenuistriatus'' YH85
 +
    |--''C. aciculatum'' Hall 1879 [=''Dentalium aciculatum''] YH85
 +
    |--''C. clintonensis'' [=''Orthoceras'' (''Coleolus'') ''clintonensis''] P68
 +
    `--''C. curvatus'' Kindle 1912 YH85
 +
  ''Styliolina fissurella'' YH85
 +
  Volborthellida [Agmata, Protochoanites, Volborthellacea, Volborthellidea] PY84
 +
    |--''Vologdinella'' Balashov 1962 [Vologdinellidae] T64
 +
    |    `--*''V. antiqua'' (Vologdin 1930) [=''Orthoceras antiquus''] T64
 +
    |--''Volborthella'' Schmidt 1888 [=''Volborthelia'' (''l. c.''); Paleonavtili, Volborthellidae] T64
 +
    |    |--*''V. tenuis'' Schmidt 1888 T64
 +
    |    `--''V. conica'' T64
 +
    `--''Salterella'' Billings 1861 [Salterellidae] T64
 +
        |--*''S. rugosa'' Billings 1861 T64
 +
        `--''S. conulata'' T64
 +
  ''Ptychoderma australiensis'' H09
 +
  ''Limnorea'' Goldfuss 1826 BR05
 +
  ''Thamnopora pulchra'' Y92
 +
  ''Cladopora cylindrocellulaia'' Y92
 +
  ''Liponissus saurarorum'' K92
 +
  ''Pseudoalabidocarpus'' [Labidocarpidae] K06
 +
    `--''P. secus'' K06
 +
  ''Ancodon'' S61
 +
    |--''A. gorringei'' S61
 +
    `--''A. parvus'' S61
 +
  ''Megacyllene robiniae'' EBS98
 +
  ''Shelbyoceras'' Ulrich & Foerste 1930 T64
 +
    |--*''S. robustum'' Ulrich & Foerste 1930 T64
 +
    |--''S. bessemerense'' Ulrich, Foerste & Miller 1943 P68
 +
    |--''S. buttsi'' Ulrich, Foerste & Miller 1943 P68
 +
    `--''S. unguliforme'' Ulrich, Foerste & Mller 1943 P68
 +
  ''Conigalea'' Ivanov 1995 [Actinaculata, Conigaleidae, Conigaleoida, Marinaculata] I95
 +
    `--*''C. otschevi'' Ivanov 1995 I95
 +
  ''Salpa'' B26
 +
    |--''S. fusiformis'' B26
 +
    |--''S. tilesii'' B26
 +
    `--''S. zonaria'' B26
 +
  ''Branchiura sowerbyi'' KA01
 +
  ''Stylodrilus heringianus'' KA01
 +
  ''Basiliella wusungensis'' D82
 +
  ''Taimyrosphinctes excentricus'' SY85
 +
  ''Chetaites sibiricus'' SY85
 +
  ''Hectoceras kochi'' SY85
 +
  ''Riasamites riasanensis'' SY85
 +
  ''Subcraspedites spasskensis'' SY85
 +
  ''Aulacosphinctes reedi'' SY85
 +
  ''Surites analogus'' SY85
 +
  ''Substeuroceras stantoni'' SY85
 +
  ''Rhabderemia'' [Rhabderemiidae] FV09
 +
    `--''R. indica'' Dendy 1905 FV09
 +
  ''Suberea'' [Aplysinellidae] FV09
 +
  ''Reniochalina stalagmitis'' Lendenfeld 1888 FV09
 +
  ''Lelapia australis'' T10
-
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of genus indicated
+
Animalia [Agnotozoa, Coelenterata, Diploblastica, Enterozoa, Eumetazoa, Gelatinosa, Metazoa, Parazoa, Porifera, Radiata, Spongiaria, Vendobionta]
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>*</nowiki>''Pararenicola huaiyuanensis'' Wang 1982 [incl. ''Paleorhynchus anhuiensis'' Wang 1982, ''Ruedemannella minuta'' Wang 1982, ''Paleolina tortuosa'' Wang 1982] SWZ86
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
== References ==
== References ==
-
Amann, R. I., W. Ludwig & K.-H. Schleifer. 1995. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. ''Microbiological Reviews'' 59 (1): 143-169.
+
[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. ''Zoologische Verhandelingen'' 156: 1-159.
 +
 
 +
[BJ06] Barnich, R., & D. Janussen. 2006. Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, Nr. 86. Type catalogue of the Porifera in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ''Senckenbergiana Biologica'' 86 (2): 127-144.
 +
 
 +
[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. ''Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries'' 40 (2): 1-509.
 +
 
 +
[BR05] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, J. Frýda, B. Hausdorf, W. Ponder, Á. Valdés & A. Warén. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. ''Malacologia'' 47 (1-2): 1-397.
 +
 
 +
[BL78] Breimer, A., & N. G. Lane. 1978. Ecology and paleoecology. In ''Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology'' pt. T. ''Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea'' (R. C. Moore & C. Teichert, eds.) vol. 1 pp. T316-T347. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).
 +
 
 +
[C96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. ''Biology'' (4th ed.) The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).
 +
 
 +
[C-S98] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. ''Biological Reviews'' 73: 203-266.
 +
 
 +
[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and other Protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. ''Journal of Molecular Evolution'' 56: 540-563.
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==Credits==
==Credits==
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introduction CKT061026; phylogeny CKT070912
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introduction CKT061026; phylogeny [[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 06:44, 30 January 2011 (UTC)

Latest revision as of 06:44, 30 January 2011

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