Miliolina

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The Miliolina comprise a suborder of foraminifera, sometimes considered an order where foramininfera are regarded as a class, that unites genera distributed among various superfamlies characterized by having an imperforate porcelaneous test. Some are free, able to move about, others are attached to substrate, at least during some phase of life.  All are benthic.  
The Miliolina comprise a suborder of foraminifera, sometimes considered an order where foramininfera are regarded as a class, that unites genera distributed among various superfamlies characterized by having an imperforate porcelaneous test. Some are free, able to move about, others are attached to substrate, at least during some phase of life.  All are benthic.  
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The test is given its porcelaneous appearance by the fine randomly oriented rodlike crystals of high-magnesum calcite, 1.5 µm to 2.0 µm in length and 0.24µm in diameter, seen only with the electron micro-scope., which diffuses the transmission or reflection of light. Surface layers may have variously arranged tabular rhombohedral crys­tals. Organic linings are common and adventitious foreign material may be encorporated, but not are perforate except for some the the very earliest stages.  
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The test is given its porcelaneous appearance by the fine randomly oriented rodlike crystals of high-magnesum calcite, 1.5 µm to 2.0 µm in length and 0.24µm in diameter, seen only with the electron microscope, which diffuses the transmission or reflection of light. Surface layers may have variously arranged tabular rhombohedral crys­tals. Organic linings are common and adventitious foreign material may be incorporated, but none are perforate except for some in the very earliest stages.  
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Five superfamilies are recognized, beginning with the early Carboniferous (Late Mississippean) to recent [[Cornuspiracea]], followed in succession by the Late Permian to recent [[Soritacea]], Late Triassic to recent [[Miliolacea]], Cretaceous to recent [[Alveolinacea]], and Late Cretaceous and recent [[Squamulinacea]]. In terms of family diversity, the Conuspiracea is the most divers with eight families, followed by the Miliolacea and Soritacea with six familieseach. The Alveolincea has three families, the Squamulinacea, one.  
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Five superfamilies are recognized, beginning with the early Carboniferous (Late Mississippian) to recent [[Cornuspiracea]], followed in succession by the Late Permian to recent [[Soritacea]], Late Triassic to recent [[Miliolacea]], Cretaceous to recent [[Alveolinacea]], and Late Cretaceous and recent [[Squamulinacea]]. In terms of family diversity, the Conuspiracea is the most divers with eight families, followed by the Miliolacea and Soritacea with six familieseach. The Alveolincea has three families, the Squamulinacea, one.  
==References==
==References==

Revision as of 01:03, 19 July 2011

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