Nautilida

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(Conch Shape: reduced links)
(Conch Shape: linked Aturia to Aturiidae, typo tix in Menuthionautilus)
 
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==Introduction==
==Introduction==
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'''Time:''' [[Devonian]] to [[Recent]].
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'''Range:''' [[Devonian]] to [[Recent]].
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The nautilids include the modern pearly ''[[nautilus]]'' and its evolutionary ancestors and relatives. During the late [[Paleozoic]] and the [[Mesozoic]] this was a large and successful group, but today is represented only by several species of the genus ''Nautilus''.
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The Nautilida is an order of mostly coiled [[Nautiloidea|nautiloid]] cephalopods, derived from the [[Oncocerida]] in the Devonian.  Today the order is represented by the modern pearly ''[[Nautilus]]'' and its close relative, ''[[Allonautilus]]''; the only two known living genera of shelled cephalopods. However during the late [[Paleozoic]] and for much of the [[Mesozoic]] this had been a large and diverse group with families and superfamilies.
==Conch Shape==
==Conch Shape==
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Explains Teichert (1988):
Explains Teichert (1988):
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:The Nautilida exhibit an infinite variety in degrees of coiling (with no deviations from the planispiral model), whorl cross sections, and surface ornamentations, but no overall trends in any of these features. Sutures were straight or only weakly undulating in almost all genera, with the exception of a few that developed in the [[Carboniferous]] among the Trigonoceratidae, in the Late [[Triassic]] in the Clydonautilidae, Gonionautilidae, and Siberionautilidae, and during the Late [[Cretaceous]] and Early [[Tertiary]] among the Hercoglossidae and Aturiidae, all of which have sutures similar to those of certain Upper Devonian [[Goniatitida|goniatite]] genera. Characteristically, [[siphuncle]]s are orthochoanitic and anywhere from subventral to subdorsal in position. Only few forms have marginal siphuncles, with those of the Late Paleozoic Aipocerataceae and of Triassic ''[[Menuthlonautilus]]'' being ventral and that of Early Tertiary ''[[Aturia]]'' being dorsal in position.
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:The Nautilida exhibit an infinite variety in degrees of coiling (with no deviations from the planispiral model), whorl cross sections, and surface ornamentations, but no overall trends in any of these features. Sutures were straight or only weakly undulating in almost all genera, with the exception of a few that developed in the [[Carboniferous]] among the Trigonoceratidae, in the Late [[Triassic]] in the Clydonautilidae, Gonionautilidae, and Siberionautilidae, and during the Late [[Cretaceous]] and Early [[Tertiary]] among the Hercoglossidae and [[Aturiidae]], all of which have sutures similar to those of certain Upper Devonian [[Goniatitida|goniatite]] genera. Characteristically, [[siphuncle]]s are [[siphuncle|orthochoanitic]] and anywhere from subventral to subdorsal in position. Only few forms have marginal siphuncles, with those of the Late Paleozoic Aipocerataceae and of Triassic ''[[Menuthionautilus]]'' being ventral and that of Early Tertiary ''[[Aturiidae|Aturia]]'' being dorsal in position.
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==Lifestyle and ecology==
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Modern nautilids (and it can be assumed many extinct types too) live at some depth but can rise to shallower waters.  They feed on fish and invertebrates.  There are 38 arms which form a circle around the head. The eyes are small and primitive, and functions rather like a pinhole camera.  Above the head and the arms is a leathery, protective hood, that acts like an [[operculum]] to protect the animal when it withdraws inside its shell.  They produce only a few large and well-developed offspring at a time. Development time inside the egg of more than a year in the Recent ''Nautilus''. It takes three or four years to reach maturity. The adults can spawn several times and may live up to 20 years. 
==Phylogenetic Relationships==
==Phylogenetic Relationships==
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[[Image:Ptenoceras alatum.gif|thumb|680px|center|The early nautilid ''[[Ptenoceras alatum]]'' (Barrande), Early Devonian, Czechoslovakia. A, Dorsal view; B, lateral view; C, longitudinal section of siphuncle (After Barrande, 1865, from Teichert, 1967, from Teichert 1988).]]
[[Image:Ptenoceras alatum.gif|thumb|680px|center|The early nautilid ''[[Ptenoceras alatum]]'' (Barrande), Early Devonian, Czechoslovakia. A, Dorsal view; B, lateral view; C, longitudinal section of siphuncle (After Barrande, 1865, from Teichert, 1967, from Teichert 1988).]]
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Although the ancestors of the Nautilida have previously been considered among straight-shelled (''"[[Orthoceras]]"'') [[Cephalopoda|cephalopods]] which became gradually coiled nautilids (Schindewolt, 1942), or from coiled [[Silurian]] forms of the [[Barrandeocerina|barrandeocerine]] [[Tarphycerida|tarphycerids]] ([[Barrandeoceratidae]] Flower & Kummel 1950 or [[Lechritrochoceratidae]] Dzik 1984, it is now generally accepted that the [[Oncocerida]] gave rise to the order Nautilida. Teichert (1988) suggests that the best candidates would be the [[Acleistoceratidae]] and the [[Brevicoceratidae]], both of whom have [[exogastric]]ally curved or coiled shells and [[cyrtochoanitic]] [[septa]]l necks, characteristic of early rutoceratid and ptenoceratid Nautilida.
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The  Nautilida are generally thought to be derived from the [[Oncocerida]], through the Rutoceratidae. Teichert (1988) suggested that the best candidates would be the Acleistoceratidae and the Brevicoceratidae, both of which have [[Cephalopod shell morphology|exogastrically]] curved or coiled shells and [[siphuncle|cyrtochoanitic]] septal necks, characteristic of early rutoceratid and ptenoceratid nautilids. Dzik (1984) previously proposed the alternative oncocerid Lechritrochoceratidae.
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Earlier ideas include evolution from straight-shelled ("[[Orthocerida|Orthoceras]]") cephalopods which became progressively more and more coiled (Schindewolf, 1942), or from already coiled Silurian [[Barrandeocerina|barrandeocerine]] [[Tarphycerida|tarphycerids]] (Barrandeoceratidae Flower & Kummel 1950)
==Evolutionary History==
==Evolutionary History==
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[[Image:Cenoceras trechmanni.gif|thumb|680px|center|The oldest nautilid, ''[[Cenoceras trechmanni]]'' (Kummel), [[Carnian]] of New Zealand. A, Ventral view B. Lateral view. Height about 7 cm  
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[[Image:Cenoceras trechmanni.gif|thumb|680px|center|The oldest of the nautilidae, ''[[Cenoceras|Cenoceras trechmanni]]'' (Kummel), [[Carnian]] of New Zealand. A, Ventral view B. Lateral view. Height about 7 cm  
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(after Kummel 1953, from Teichert 1967, from Teichert 1988).]]
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(after Kummel 1953).]]
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The Nautilida have a rich and complex evolutionary history. The details of [[taxonomy]] and [[phylogenetics]] remain obscure, but the general pattern is clear. This [[clade]], the last of the major groups of [[Palcephalopoda]] to evolve, are also the most successful. The following account is by Teichert (1988):
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The Nautilida have a rich and complex evolutionary history. The details of [[taxonomy]] and [[phylogenetics]] remain obscure, but the general pattern is clear. This [[clade]], the last of the major groups of [[Nautiloidea|Palcephalopoda]] to evolve, are also the most successful. The following account is by Teichert (1988):
:From modest beginnings in the Lower Devonian (Teichert ''et al.'', 1979), the number of genera increased from 1 or 2 in the [[Gedinnian]] to at least a dozen in the [[Enisian]] and about 22 in the Middle Devonian. After a decline in the Late Devonian, with only 3 genera recorded, the order rose to great prominence in the Carboniferous, when some 75 genera and subgenera in some 16 families are known (Shimanskiy, 1967, with additions). After the Carboniferous we witness a steady decline of the order to about 55 genera in 10 or 12 families in the [[Permian]], and about 35 genera in 8 families in the Triassic. Interestingly, the nautilids were much less affected by the great wave of extinctions at the end of the Permian than the contemporary [[ammonoidea|ammonoids]]: 3 families and at least 4 possibly 8 genera of nautilids passed from the Permian into the Triassic. Beginning in the Triassic, morphological differentiation of the order declined to a severe setback in the Late Triassic, when, just as today, only one genus, ''[[Cenoceras]]'' (above), survived (Kummel, 1953). This was followed by a slight recovery in the Late [[Jurassic]] and, especially, Cretaceous with 24 genera (Shimanskiy, 1975; Whetstone and Teichert, 1978), and a final decline during the [[Cenozoic]], at the end of which the order is reduced to a single genus ''Nautilus''.
:From modest beginnings in the Lower Devonian (Teichert ''et al.'', 1979), the number of genera increased from 1 or 2 in the [[Gedinnian]] to at least a dozen in the [[Enisian]] and about 22 in the Middle Devonian. After a decline in the Late Devonian, with only 3 genera recorded, the order rose to great prominence in the Carboniferous, when some 75 genera and subgenera in some 16 families are known (Shimanskiy, 1967, with additions). After the Carboniferous we witness a steady decline of the order to about 55 genera in 10 or 12 families in the [[Permian]], and about 35 genera in 8 families in the Triassic. Interestingly, the nautilids were much less affected by the great wave of extinctions at the end of the Permian than the contemporary [[ammonoidea|ammonoids]]: 3 families and at least 4 possibly 8 genera of nautilids passed from the Permian into the Triassic. Beginning in the Triassic, morphological differentiation of the order declined to a severe setback in the Late Triassic, when, just as today, only one genus, ''[[Cenoceras]]'' (above), survived (Kummel, 1953). This was followed by a slight recovery in the Late [[Jurassic]] and, especially, Cretaceous with 24 genera (Shimanskiy, 1975; Whetstone and Teichert, 1978), and a final decline during the [[Cenozoic]], at the end of which the order is reduced to a single genus ''Nautilus''.
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:Interestingly, the nautilids were not affected by the wave of extinctions at the Cretaceous - Tertiary boundary which wiped out their close relatives, the ammonoids; three families and at least five genera of nautilids crossed this boundary and the [[Paleocene]] and [[Eocene]] saw a resurgence of nautilids, with several new genera added, most of which were of worldwide distribution (Miller, 1949; Kummel, 1956; Shimanskiy, 1979).
:Interestingly, the nautilids were not affected by the wave of extinctions at the Cretaceous - Tertiary boundary which wiped out their close relatives, the ammonoids; three families and at least five genera of nautilids crossed this boundary and the [[Paleocene]] and [[Eocene]] saw a resurgence of nautilids, with several new genera added, most of which were of worldwide distribution (Miller, 1949; Kummel, 1956; Shimanskiy, 1979).
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==Lifestyle and ecology==
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==Taxonomy==
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The Nautilida contains five superfamilies,  four are  late Paleozoic, of which three extend into the Triassic, one is Jurassic to Recent.  They are the: <br>
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Modern nautilids (and it can be assumed many extinct types too) live at some depth but can rise to shallower waters.  They feed on fish and invertebrates.  There are 38 arms which form a circle around the head. The eyes are small and primitive, and functions rather like a pinhole camera.  Above the head and the arms is a leathery, protective hood, that acts like an [[operculum]] to protect the animal when it withdraws inside its shell.  They produce only a few large and well-developed offspring at a time. Development time inside the egg of more than a year in the Recent ''Nautilus''. It takes three or four years to reach maturity. The adults can spawn several times and may live up to 20 years. 
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:[[Tainocerataceae]] <br>
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:[[Trigonocerataceae]] <br>
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:[[Clydonautilaceae]] <br>
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:[[Aipocerataceae]] <br>
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:[[Nautilaceae]]
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==Taxonomy==
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The older and longer established --aceae endings are retained as they more clearly indicate superfamily rank than does the now more ambiguous --oidea ending  which in invertebrate science had been an indication of subclass or superorder. 
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''see [[Nautilid Dendrogram]]
 
Shimanskiy (1962) divided the Nautilida into 34 families (later (1979) reduced to 30) and 184 genera, whilst Kummel in the ''Treatise'' (1964) recognized 24 families and 165 genera. Both agree that the Nautilida is the largest order of the (sensu lato) [[Nautiloidea]].
Shimanskiy (1962) divided the Nautilida into 34 families (later (1979) reduced to 30) and 184 genera, whilst Kummel in the ''Treatise'' (1964) recognized 24 families and 165 genera. Both agree that the Nautilida is the largest order of the (sensu lato) [[Nautiloidea]].
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===Suprafamilial Phylogeny===
 
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Nautilida [Nautiloidea]
 
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: [[Tainocerataceae]]
 
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:: `-Rutoceratidae (--> Aipocerataceae, Clydonautilaceae, Trigoncerataceae.)
 
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::: |-Tetragonoceratidae
 
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::: |-Koninckioceratidae
 
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::: `-Tainoceratidae
 
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::::  `-Rhiphaeoceratidae
 
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:: [[Aipocerataceae]]       
 
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::: |--Aipoceratidae
 
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::: `--Solenochilidae
 
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:: [[Clydonautilaceae]]
 
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:::`-Liroceratidae
 
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::::|-Ephippioceratidae
 
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::::`-Clydonautilidae
 
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:::::`- Gonionautilidae
 
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::::::`- Siberonautilidae
 
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::[[Trigonocerataceae]]
 
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:::|--Centroceratidae
 
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:::|--Trigonoceratidae
 
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:::`--Grypoceratidae
 
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::::|-- Permoceratidae
 
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::::`-- Syringonautilidae (--> Nautilaceae )
 
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:::[[Nautilaceae]]
 
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::::`-Nautilidae
 
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:::::|-Pseudonautilidae
 
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:::::|-Paracenoceratidae
 
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:::::|-Cymatoceratidae
 
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:::::`-Hercoglossidae
 
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::::::`-Aturidae
 
== References ==
== References ==
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Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. ''Marine Biology'', 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.
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Kummel, B. 1964. Nautiloidea – Nautilida. In ''Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology'' pt. K. ''Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea'' (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K383-K457. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.
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Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: Monoplacophorans are related to chitons. ''Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA'' 103 (20): 7723-7728.
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Histon, K. 1999. A revision of A. H. Foord’s monograph of Irish Carboniferous nautiloid cephalopods (1897-1901). Part 2. ''Monograph of the Palaeontographical Society'' 153: 63-129.
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Klug, C., & D. Korn. 2002. Occluded umbilicus in the Pinacitinae (Devonian) and its palaeoecological implications. ''Palaeontology'' 45 (5): 917-931.
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Sone, M., M. S. Leman & M. Ehino. 2001. Middle Permian cephalopods from central Peninsular Malaysia: Implications for faunal migration through the southern Tethys. ''Journal of Asian Earth Sciences'' 19: 805-814.
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Teichert, C. 1988. Main features of cephalopod evolution. In ''The Mollusca'' vol. 12. ''Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods'' (M. R. Clarke & E. R. Trueman, eds.) Academic Press.
Teichert, C. 1988. Main features of cephalopod evolution. In ''The Mollusca'' vol. 12. ''Paleontology and Neontology of Cephalopods'' (M. R. Clarke & E. R. Trueman, eds.) Academic Press.
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'''Credits'''
'''Credits'''
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ATW020926 except phylogeny JHM090511
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ATW020926; suprafamilial phylogeny JHM090511
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dendrogram CKT071211 moved to Nautilid Dendrogram
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Latest revision as of 13:58, 21 November 2012

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