Oncocerida

From Palaeos.org

Jump to: navigation, search
(created article)
(Taxonomy)
 
Line 1: Line 1:
==Introduction and Description==
==Introduction and Description==
-
The '''Oncocerida''' constitute an order of [[Nautiloidea|nautiloid]] [[cephalopoda|cephalopods]] from the [[Ordovician]], [[Silurian]], and [[Devonian]] in which the earliest produced compressed [[cephalopod shell morphology|exogastric cyrtocones]], but which evolved to produce virtually straight breviconic, gyroconic, torticonic, and nautiliconic shells; most exogastric, some slightly or notably [[cephalopod shell morphology|endogastric]]. The [[siphuncle]] is commonly in the ventral part of the shell, in most marginal or submarginal. In the juvenile portion of earlier forms, [[siphuncle|septal necks]] are short and orthochoanitic and connecting rings are thin and tubular. In the later stages of earlier forms and throughout in most advanced forms septal necks are [[siphuncle|cyrtochoanitic]] and the connecting rings are expanded, at least on one side, into the chambers, producing an outline described as "beaded', "cylindroid", "ellipsoidal", "ovoid:. or "nummuloida". A number of genera are referred to as being actinosiphonate, in which the connecting rings are thickened internally in radially dispersed longitudinal blade-like lamellae.  
+
The '''Oncocerida''' constitute an order of [[Nautiloidea|nautiloid]] [[cephalopoda|cephalopods]] from the [[Ordovician]], [[Silurian]], and [[Devonian]] in which the earliest produced compressed [[cephalopod shell morphology|exogastric cyrtocones]], but which evolved to produce virtually straight breviconic, gyroconic, torticonic, and nautiliconic shells; most exogastric, some slightly or notably [[cephalopod shell morphology|endogastric]]. The [[siphuncle]] is commonly in the ventral part of the shell, in most marginal or submarginal. In the juvenile portion of earlier forms, [[siphuncle|septal necks]] are short and orthochoanitic and connecting rings are thin and tubular. In the later stages of earlier forms and throughout in most advanced forms septal necks are [[siphuncle|cyrtochoanitic]] and the connecting rings are expanded, at least on one side, into the chambers, producing an outline described as "beaded', "cylindroid", "ellipsoidal", "ovoid:. or "nummuloidal". A number of genera are referred to as being actinosiphonate, in which the connecting rings are thickened internally in radially dispersed longitudinal blade-like lamellae.  
==Phylogeny==
==Phylogeny==
Line 10: Line 10:
There is strong evidence that the Oncocerida gave rise to the [[Nautilida]], most likely though either the Acleistoceratidae or Brevicoceratidae (Kummel 1964) although no specific genus is known to have been identified.
There is strong evidence that the Oncocerida gave rise to the [[Nautilida]], most likely though either the Acleistoceratidae or Brevicoceratidae (Kummel 1964) although no specific genus is known to have been identified.
 +
 +
==Taxonomy==
 +
[[Cephalopoda|<==]]Oncocerida (see below for synonymy)
 +
    `--[[Graciloceratidae]]
 +
      |-+-[[Valcouroceratidae]]
 +
      | `--[[Jovellaniidae]]
 +
      |-[[Diestoceratidae]]
 +
      |- (?)[[Tripteroceratidae]]
 +
      `-+-[[Oncoceratidae]]
 +
        |-[[Nothoceratidae]]
 +
        |-[[Trimeroceratidae]]
 +
        |-[[Hemiphragmoceratidae]]
 +
        |-[[Acleistoceratidae]]
 +
        |-[[Polyelasmoceratidae]]
 +
        |-[[Brevicoceratidae]]
 +
        |-[[Tripleuroceratidae]]
 +
        `-[[Archiacoceratidae]]
 +
   
 +
 +
 
 +
Oncocerida ''incertae sedis'':
 +
  Tripleuroceratidae S64
 +
    |--''Tripleuroceras'' Hyatt 1884 S64
 +
    |    `--*''T. archiaci'' (Barrande 1868) [=''Orthoceras archiaci''] S64
 +
    `--''Psiaoceras'' Shimanskiy 1957 S64
 +
        `--*''P. hesperis'' (Eichwald 1860) [=''Gomphoceras hesperis''] S64
 +
  Archiacoceratidae S64
 +
    |--''Archiacoceras'' Foerste 1926 S64
 +
    |    `--*''A. subventricosus'' (d’Archiac & de Verneuil 1842) [=''Phragmoceratites subventricosus''] S64
 +
    |--''Cyrtoceratites'' Goldfuss 1830 (see below for synonymy) S64
 +
    |    `--*''C. flexuosus'' (Schlotheim 1820) [=''Orthoceratites flexuosus''] S64
 +
    `--''Devonocheilus'' Shimanskiy 1962 S64
 +
        `--*''D. timanicus'' (Holzapfel 1899) [=''Phragmoceras timanicum''] S64
 +
  ''Antonoceras'' Shimanskiy 1957 S64
 +
    `--*''A. balaschovi'' Shimanskiy 1957 S64
 +
  ''Eudoceras'' Hyatt 1884 S64
 +
    `--*''E. pandum'' (Hall 1857) [=''Trochoceras'' (''Gonioceras'') ''pandum''] S64
 +
  ''Pachtoceras'' Foerste 1926 S64
 +
    `--*''P. rotundum'' (Pacht 1858) [=''Gomphoceras rotundum''] S64
 +
  ''Sycoceras'' Pictet 1854 [=''Syrcoceras'' (''l. c.'')] S64
 +
    `--*''S. ficus'' (Roemer 1850) [=''Gomphoceras ficus''] S64
 +
  ''Apioceras'' Fahrenkohl 1844 (''n. d.'') [=''Bolboceras'' Fischer ''in'' Fahrenkohl 1844 ''non'' Kirby 1819] S64
 +
    `--*''A. trochoides'' Fahrenkohl 1844 S64
 +
  ''Gomphoceras'' Sowerby 1839 (''n. d.'') [=''Gomphoceratites'' (''l. c.''); Gomphoceratidae] S64
 +
    |--*''G. pyriforme'' (Sowerby 1839) [=''Orthoceras pyriforme''] S64
 +
    |--''G. breviposticum'' Whitfield 1882 P68
 +
    |--''G. calvini'' Cleland 1911 P68
 +
    |--''G. fusiforme'' Whitfield 1873 P68
 +
    |--''G. suboviforme'' Walcott 1884 P68
 +
    |--''G. turbiniforme'' P68
 +
    |--''G. wabashensis'' P68
 +
    `--''G. whitfieldi'' Cleland 1907 P68
 +
  ''Nelimenia'' Laporte 1843 (''n. d.'') [=''Nolimenia'' (''l. c.'')] S64
 +
    `--*''N. incognita'' Laporte 1843 S64
 +
  ''Pictetoceras'' Foerste 1926 (''n. d.'') S64
 +
    `--*''P. eichwaldi'' (de Verneuil 1845) [=''Gomphoceras eichwaldi''] S64
 +
  ''Wetherbyoceras'' Foerste 1926 (''n. d.'') S64
 +
    |--*''W. conoidale'' (Wetherby 1881) [=''Cyrtoceras conoidale''] S64
 +
    `--''W. vallandighami'' P68
 +
 +
''Cyrtoceratites'' Goldfuss 1830 [=''Cyrthocerus'' King 1844, ''Cyrtocera'' Goldfuss 1832; incl. ''Campulites'' Deshayes ''in'' Lamarck 1845, ''Cirthoceratites'' Deshayes ''in'' Cuvier 1838] S64
 +
 +
Oncocerida [Actinosiphonata, Cyrtoceracea, Cyrtoceroidea, Gomphoceracea, Gomphoceroidea, Oncoceratida, Oncoceratina, Oncoceroida, Oncoceroidea]
 +
 +
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
==References==
==References==
-
* Sweet, Walter C, 1964. Nautiloidea -Oncocerida' Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part K. Geological Society of America and University of Kansas press.
+
 
 +
[P68] Purnell, L. R. 1968. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils. Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. ''United States National Museum Bulletin'' 262: 1-198.
 +
 
 +
[S64] Sweet, W. C. 1964. Nautiloidea Oncocerida. In ''Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology'' pt. K. ''Mollusca 3. Cephalopoda – General Features – Endoceratoidea – Actinoceratoidea – Nautiloidea – Bactritoidea'' (R. C. Moore, ed.) pp. K277-K319. The Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.
 +
 
 +
'''Credits'''
 +
 
 +
Introduction and phylogeny John M 12/14/09; taxonomy [[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 23:53, 15 January 2011 (UTC)

Latest revision as of 16:48, 7 October 2014

Personal tools