Peneroplidae

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m (Protected "Peneroplidae" [move=sysop])
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  [[Miliolida|<==]]Peneroplidae
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'''Systematic Biology''' <br>
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Class: [[Foraminifera]] <br>
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Order:  [[Miliolida]] <br>
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Superfamily:  [[Soritacea]] <br>
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Family:  '''Peneroplidae'''
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Genera in text
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The Peneroplidae is a family of miliolid foraminifera, included in the superfamily Soritacea, in which the test is close coiled in the early growth stages, with simple, non-subdivided chambers,  but may become multispiral, serial, or annular in the later stages. Apertures vary according to genus and are found on the final septal, or apertural, face.  As with the order the test is composed of high-Mg calcite and is porcelaneous and at least in latter states, imperforate.  Living genera include ''Peneroplis'' (type), ''Dendritina'', and ''Monalysidium''.
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The Peneroplidae are the earliest of the Soritacea, having their beginning in the Middle Triassic, and are preceded, within the Miliolida, by the Calcivertellidae, Ophthalmidiidae, and Cyclogyridae; the Cyclogyridae being the most likely ancestral group. 
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Cushman (1950) put ''Peneroplis'', ''Dendritina'', ''Monalysidium''. and ''Spirilina''  in the Spirolininae (Family Peneroplidae) along with the Upper Cretaceous - Paleocene ''Taberina'' and Upper Cretaceous ''Praerhapydionina''; regarded ''Peneroplis'' as the most primitive and unstable in form, giving rise to ''Dendritina'' and ''Spirilina'' and probably ''Monalysidium''.                                                                                                                 
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====Living Genera====
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'''''Peneroplis'''''. Test compressed, planispiral at least in early stage, may become uncoilled in the late, external form variable, chambers broad, low, undivided; wall porcenaneous, smooth, piited, or more commonly longitudally striated; aperture a fow of slits on a slightly indented apertural face. ''Eocene -Recent''
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'''''Dendritina'''''. Test planispiral, chambers somewhat inflated; surface smooth or striated; aperture dendrritic on triangular face.  Other chacters as for the family.  ''Eocene -Rec.''
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'''''Spirilina'''''. Test planispiral and evolute in the early growth stage, later uncoiled and becoming straight and cylindrical; surface smooth or longitudinally striated; aperture terminal with inwardly radial tooth-like projections. ''Eocene -Rec''.
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'''''Monalysidium'''''. Chambers subglobular, form an evolute planispiral in the early stage, become uncoiled forming a straight series in the later. Wall imperforate and generally smooth but may have a perforate appearance. Aperture terminal, maybe on a short neck. Possibly derived from ''Spirilina''. ''Rec''.
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==Peneroplid dendrogram==
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[[Miliolida|<==]]Peneroplidae
     |  ''i. s.'': ''Craterites'' Heron-Allen & Earland 1924
     |  ''i. s.'': ''Craterites'' Heron-Allen & Earland 1924
     |          `--*''C. rectus'' Heron-Allen & Earland 1924
     |          `--*''C. rectus'' Heron-Allen & Earland 1924
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Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa. ''Protist'' 154: 341-358.
Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa. ''Protist'' 154: 341-358.
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Cushman, J. A. 1940. ''Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use'' (3rd ed.) Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
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Cushman, J. A. 1950. ''Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use'' (4th ed.) Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
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Loeblich, A. R. Jr. and Helen Tappan, 1964. Sarcodina, Chiefly "Thecamoebians" and Foraminiferida. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part C, Protista 2. R. C. Moore (ed). Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.  
Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. ''Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia'' 88 (4): 177-190.
Semeniuk, T. A. 2005. Fossil foraminiferal assemblages from Pleistocene seagrass-bank deposits of the southern Perth Basin, Western Australia, and their palaeotemperature implications. ''Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia'' 88 (4): 177-190.
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'''Credits'''
'''Credits'''
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CKT071003
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CKT071003 JHM 3/15/11

Revision as of 12:15, 15 March 2011

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