Perissodactyla

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Characters: elongate [[Cranium|skulls]]; complete set of [[incisor]]s; [[premolar]]s [[molariform]], often hypsodont & lophodont; horns, if present are unpaired on frontals or nasals & lack bone core; cervical vertebrae opisthocoelous; tall neural spines on [[thoracic vertebra]]e; [[clavicle]] absent; [[scapula]] is long & narrow with small [[coracoid process]]; broad, tall [[ilium]] with large gluteal (thigh) muscles; forelegs bear most weight, with hind legs providing propulsion; [[digit]]s 3-4/3 (equids 1/1); "odd-toed" or mesaxonic, i.e. plane of symmetry passes through a large central digit; [[astragalus]] is primary weight-bearing [[tarsal]]; [[intestinal fermentation]], normally requiring constant foraging, but superior use (compared to [[Artiodactyla|artiodactyl]] [[Ruminantia|ruminant]]s) of proteins and high-quality food materials.
Characters: elongate [[Cranium|skulls]]; complete set of [[incisor]]s; [[premolar]]s [[molariform]], often hypsodont & lophodont; horns, if present are unpaired on frontals or nasals & lack bone core; cervical vertebrae opisthocoelous; tall neural spines on [[thoracic vertebra]]e; [[clavicle]] absent; [[scapula]] is long & narrow with small [[coracoid process]]; broad, tall [[ilium]] with large gluteal (thigh) muscles; forelegs bear most weight, with hind legs providing propulsion; [[digit]]s 3-4/3 (equids 1/1); "odd-toed" or mesaxonic, i.e. plane of symmetry passes through a large central digit; [[astragalus]] is primary weight-bearing [[tarsal]]; [[intestinal fermentation]], normally requiring constant foraging, but superior use (compared to [[Artiodactyla|artiodactyl]] [[Ruminantia|ruminant]]s) of proteins and high-quality food materials.
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==Phylogeny==
 
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===Dendrogram===
 
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[[Cetferungulata|<==]]Perissodactyla
 
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    |  ''i. s.'': ''Helaletes''
 
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    |        ''Lophiodon''
 
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    |        ''Lophiaspis''
 
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    |        ''Symborodon''
 
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    |        ''Orotherium'' Marsh 1872
 
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    |          |--''O. cristonense'' Cope 1876
 
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    |          |--''O. laevii''
 
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    |          `--''O. vintanum'' Marsh 1872
 
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    |        ''Oligotomus''
 
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    |        ''Dolichorhinus''
 
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    |        ''Brontops''
 
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    |--Tapiromorpha
 
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    |    |  ''i. s.'': ''Heptodon tienshanensis''
 
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    |    |        ''Eomoropus''
 
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    |    |        ''Palaesyops''
 
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    |    |        ''Lambdotherium''
 
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    |    |--''Orientolophus''
 
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    |    `--+--+--''Cymbalophus'' Hooker 1984
 
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    |      |  |    `--*''C. cuniculus'' (Owen 1842) [=''Hyracotherium cuniculus'']
 
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    |      |  `--''Systemodon'' Cope 1881
 
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    |      |      |--*''S. tapirinus'' (Cope 1875) (see below for synonymy)
 
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    |      |      `--''S. etsagicus'' (Cope 1884) [=''Hyracotherium angustidens etsagicum'']
 
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    |      `--+--''Cardiolophus''
 
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    |          `--+--''Homogalax protapirinus'' [=''Systemodon protapirinus'']
 
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    |            `--+--''Isectolophus''
 
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    |                `--+--[[Ceratomorpha]]
 
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    |                  `--[[Chalicotheriidae]]
 
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    `--Hippomorpha [Equoidea]
 
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        |  ''i. s.'': [[Brontotheriidae]] [Brontotherioidea]
 
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        |          |--Metatelmatheriinae
 
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        |          |    |--''Qufutitan'' Wang & Wang 1997
 
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        |          |    |    `--*''Q. zhoui'' Wang & Wang 1997
 
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        |          |    |--''Metatelmatherium''
 
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        |          |    |    |--''M. cristatum''
 
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        |          |    |    `--''M. ultimum''
 
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        |          |    |--''Desmatotitan''
 
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        |          |    |--''Hyotitan''
 
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        |          |    |--''Acrotitan''
 
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        |          |    `--''Arctotitan''
 
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        |          |--''Rhinotitan'' [Epimanteoceratinae]
 
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        |          |    `--''R. mongoliensis''
 
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        |          `--Embolotheriinae
 
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        |--[[Equidae]]
 
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        `--+--''Hallensia mathewsi''
 
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            `--+--''Hyracotherium'' Owen 1841
 
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              |    |--*''H. leporinum'' Owen 1841
 
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              |    |--''H. agile'' (Marsh 1873) [=''Orohippus agilis'']
 
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              |    |--''H. procyoninum'' (Cope 1872) [=''Helotherium procyoninum'']
 
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              |    |--''H. siderolithicum''
 
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              |    `--''H. sylvaticum''
 
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              `--Palaeotheriidae
 
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                    |  ''i. s.'': ''Propachynolophus''
 
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                    |        ''Anchilophus''
 
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                    |        ''Plagiolophus''
 
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                    |--+--''Palaeotherium''
 
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                    |  `--''Propalaeotherium''
 
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                    `--''Pachynolophus''
 
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                        |--''P. lavocati''
 
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                        `--''P. livinerensis''
 
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''Systemodon tapirinus'' (Cope 1875) [=''Hyracotherium tapirinum'', ''Orohippus tapirinus''; incl. ''H. cristatum'' Wortman 1896]
 
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
 
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===References===
 
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Campbell, N. A. 1996. ''Biology'' (4th ed.) The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).
 
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Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. ''Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian'' 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.
 
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Froehlich, D. J. 2002. Quo vadis eohippus? The systematics and taxonomy of the early Eocene equids (Perissodactyla). ''Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society'' 134: 141-256.
 
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Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 28-39. Torstar Books: New York.
 
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Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of ''Rhombomylus'' (Mammalia, Glires): Implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. ''Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History'' 275: 1-247.
 
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Wang Y. & Wang J. 1997. A new brontothere from late Middle Eocene of Qufu, Shandong. ''Vertebrata PalAsiatica'' 35 (1): 68-77.
 
==External links==
==External links==
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==Credits==
==Credits==
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Phylogeny: [[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 01:15, 17 June 2008 (PDT)
 
Characters and Links: ATW020617
Characters and Links: ATW020617
{{Wikipedia}} http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perissodactyla
{{Wikipedia}} http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perissodactyla
Editing: MAK061122
Editing: MAK061122

Latest revision as of 06:31, 8 November 2012

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