Pezizales

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'''Pezizales''' is one of the basalmost orders of [[ascomycota|ascomycetes]]. It includes some significant edible taxa, such as ''[[Tuber]]'' (truffles) and ''[[Morchella]]'' (morels). Most members of the Pezizales produce usually cup-shaped [[apothecium|apothecia]] bearing [[unitunicate]] [[ascus|asci]] that open by means of an operculum (hence an older name for this group is "Operculate [[Discomycetes]]"). In contrast, apothecia in other taxa (such as [[Leotiales]]) open via a slit or pore. Some subterranean taxa such as truffles have a closed fruiting body (an [[exothecium]], [[ptychothecium]] or [[stereothecium]]) with asci that do not open in a regular manner to release spores [http://mgd.nacse.org/hyperSQL/pezweb/features.html].
'''Pezizales''' is one of the basalmost orders of [[ascomycota|ascomycetes]]. It includes some significant edible taxa, such as ''[[Tuber]]'' (truffles) and ''[[Morchella]]'' (morels). Most members of the Pezizales produce usually cup-shaped [[apothecium|apothecia]] bearing [[unitunicate]] [[ascus|asci]] that open by means of an operculum (hence an older name for this group is "Operculate [[Discomycetes]]"). In contrast, apothecia in other taxa (such as [[Leotiales]]) open via a slit or pore. Some subterranean taxa such as truffles have a closed fruiting body (an [[exothecium]], [[ptychothecium]] or [[stereothecium]]) with asci that do not open in a regular manner to release spores [http://mgd.nacse.org/hyperSQL/pezweb/features.html].
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[[Pezizomycotina|<==]]Pezizales [Otideaceae, Pezizomycetes]
 
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    |  ''i. s.'': ''Loculotuber''
 
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    |        ''Microeurotium''
 
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    |        ''Orcadia'' Sutherland 1915
 
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    |          `--*''O. ascophylli'' Sutherland 1915 [incl. ''O. pelvetiana'' Sutherland 1915]
 
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    |        ''Inermisia aggregata''
 
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    |        ''Carbomyces'' [Carbomycetaceae]
 
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    |        ''Glaziella'' [Glaziellaceae]
 
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    |        ''Karstenella'' [Karstenellaceae]
 
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    |        ''Rhizina'' [Rhizinaceae]
 
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    |        Ascodesmidaceae
 
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    |          |--''Ascodesmis''
 
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    |          `--''Eleutherascus''
 
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    |        Terfeziaceae
 
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    |          |--''Delastria rosea''
 
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    |          `--''Terfezia''
 
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    |                |--''T. claveryi''
 
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    |                `--''T. leptoderma''
 
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    |        Tuberaceae
 
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    |          |--''Choiromyces''
 
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    |          |--''Dingleya''
 
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    |          |--''Labyrinthomyces''
 
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    |          |--''Paradoxa''
 
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    |          |--''Reddelomyces''
 
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    |          `--''Tuber''
 
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    |                |--''T. brumale''
 
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    |                |--''T. magnatum''
 
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    |                |--''T. melanosporum''
 
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    |                `--''T. puberulum''
 
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    |        Sarcosomataceae
 
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    |          |--''Donadinia''
 
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    |          |--''Galiella''
 
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    |          |--''Korfiella''
 
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    |          |--''Neournula''
 
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    |          |--''Plectania nigrella''
 
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    |          |--''Pseudoplectania''
 
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    |          |--''Sarcosoma''
 
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    |          |--''Selenaspora''
 
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    |          |--''Strobiloscypha''
 
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    |          |--''Urnula hiemalis''
 
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    |          `--''Wolfina''
 
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    |--+--Ascobolaceae
 
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    |  |    |--''Clestoiodophanus''
 
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    |  |    |--''Cubonia''
 
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    |  |    |--''Saccobolus''
 
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    |  |    |--''[[Thecotheus]]''
 
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    |  |    `--''Ascobolus'' [incl. ''Seliniella'' Arx & Müller 1955]
 
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    |  |        |--''A. crenulatus''
 
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    |  |        |--''A. denudatus''
 
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    |  |        `--''A. immersus'' [incl. *''Seliniella macrospora'' Arx & Müller 1955]
 
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    |  `--[[Pezizaceae]]
 
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    `--+--+--''Caloscypha'' [anam. ''Geniculodendron''; Caloscyphaceae]
 
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      |  |    `--''C. fulgens'' [anam. ''Geniculodendron pyriforme'']
 
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      |  `--+--[[Helvellaceae]]
 
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      |    `--+--Discinaceae
 
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      |        |    |--''Gymnohydnotrya''
 
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      |        |    |--''Gyromitra''
 
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      |        |    |    |--''G. californica''
 
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      |        |    |    `--''G. esculenta''
 
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      |        |    |--''Hydnotrya''
 
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      |        |    `--''Pseudorhizina sphaerospora''
 
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      |        `--Morchellaceae
 
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      |            |--''Disciotis''
 
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      |            |--''Verpa''
 
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      |            `--''Morchella''
 
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      |                  |--''M. elata''
 
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      |                  `--''M. esculenta''
 
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      `--+--Sarcoscyphaceae
 
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          |    |--''Aurophora''
 
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          |    |--''Chorioactis''
 
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          |    |--''Desmazierella acicola''
 
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          |    |--''Geodina''
 
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          |    |--''Kompsoscypha''
 
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          |    |--''Microstoma''
 
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          |    |--''Nanoscypha''
 
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          |    |--''Phillipsia''
 
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          |    |--''Pseudopithyella''
 
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          |    |--''Sarcoscypha coccinea''
 
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          |    |--''Thindia''
 
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          |    |--''Wynnea''
 
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          |    `--''Cookeina'' [incl. ''Boedijnopeziza'']
 
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          |        `--''C. instititia'' [=*''Boedijnopeziza instititia'']
 
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          `--[[Pyronemataceae]]
 
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of genus indicated
 
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== References ==
 
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Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. ''Myconet'' 2: 1-41.
 
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Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, T. Laessøe & G. Rambold (eds.) 2003. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 3580-3623. ''Myconet'' 9: 91-103.
 
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Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003. Outline of Ascomycota – 2003. ''Myconet'' 9: 1-89.
 
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Gibas, C. F. C., L. Sigler, R. C. Summerbell & R. S. Currah. 2002. Phylogeny of the genus ''Arachnomyces'' and its anamorphs and the establishment of Arachnomycetales, a new eurotiomycete order in the Ascomycota. ''Studies in Mycology'' 47: 131-139.
 
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Healy, R. A. 2003. ''Mattirolomyces tiffanyae'', a new truffle from Iowa, with ultrastructural evidence for its classification in the Pezizaceae. ''Mycologia'' 95 (4): 765-772.
 
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Henk, D. A., A. Weir & M. Blackwell. 2003. ''Laboulbeniopsis termitarius'', an ectoparasite of termites newly recognized as a member of the Laboulbeniomycetes. ''Mycologia'' 95 (4): 561-564.
 
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Jacobs, A., M. P. A. Coetzee, B. D. Wingfield, K. Jacobs & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among ''Phialocephala'' species and other ascomycetes. ''Mycologia'' 95 (4): 637-645.
 
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Jacobs, K., T. Kirisits & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Taxonomic re-evaluation of three related species of ''Graphium'', based on morphology, ecology and phylogeny. ''Mycologia'' 95 (4): 714-727.
 
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James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. ''Nature'' 443: 818-822.
 
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Lumbsch, H. T., I. Schmitt, H. Döring & M. Wedin. 2001. Molecular systematics supports the recognition of an additional order of Ascomycota: The Agyriales. ''Mycological Research'' 105 (1): 16-23.
 
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Pang, K.-L., M. A. Abdel-Wahab, S. Sivichai, H. M. El-Sharouney & E. B. G. Jones. 2002. Jahnulales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota): A new order of lignicolous freshwater ascomycetes. ''Mycological Research'' 106 (9): 1031-1042.
 
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Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. ''Microbiology'' (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).
 
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Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). ''Studies in Mycology'' 42: 1-248.
 
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Schweigkofler, W., K. Lopandic, O. Molnár & H. Prillinger. 2002. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships among Ascomycota with yeast phases using ribosomal DNA sequences and cell wall sugars. ''Organisms Diversity & Evolution'' 2: 1-17.
 
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Yamanaka, T. 2003. The effect of pH on the growth of saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal ammonia fungi ''in vitro''. ''Mycologia'' 95 (4): 584-589.
 
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Latest revision as of 03:33, 11 February 2013

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