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Phenetics, also known as numerical taxonomy, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in or other observable traits, regardless of their or evolutionary relation. Phenetics should not be confused with phonetics, the study of speech sounds, despite the similarity in pronunciation.

Phenetics is an approach to grouping organisms based on total (or "raw") similarity. Although its history dates back centuries to the French botanist , phenetics underwent something of a renaissance in the 60's, 70's and early 80's in response to a growing dissatisfaction with what its practitioners viewed as the arbitrary and nonquantative approaches that rose to prominence in the 1950's. Particularly troubling was the evolutionary taxonomy of , and others (described more fully below) that appeared to be more "art" than science.

On this basis, rigorous computationally-driven clustering methods were developed to combat these perceived problems. Information about organisms would be gathered, fed into computers, and out would come hierarchical arrangements of organisms based on overall similarity, typically arranged in a "tree" of sorts called a .

Phenetics has largely been superseded by for research into evolutionary relationships among species. However, some biologists continue to use certain phenetic methods, such as , as a reasonable approximation of phylogeny when cladistic methods are too computationally expensive.

Many continue to use phenetic methods, particularly in addressing species-level questions. While the ultimate goal of taxonomy includes finding the '' - the evolutionary path connecting all species - field taxonomists also need to be able to separate one species from another. Classifying groups of diverse organisms that differ by very subtle differences is difficult using a cladistic approach. Phenetics provides numerical tools for examining overall patterns of variation, allowing researchers to identify discrete groups that can be classified as species.

Phenetic techniques include various forms of clustering and ordination. These are sophisticated ways of reducing the variation displayed by organisms to a manageable level. In practice this means measuring dozens of variables, and then presenting them as two or three dimensional graphs. Much of the technical challenge in phenetics revolves around balancing the loss of information in such a reduction against the ease of interpreting the resulting graphs. Modern applications of phenetics are common in botany, and you'll find some examples in most issues of the journal Systematic Botany.

It is important to draw a distinction between phenetics as an approach to taxonomy, and phenetics as a tool for deciphering the evolutionary relationships of organisms. Although phenetic clustering can and has been used to generate , to the phenetic taxonomist, any convergence of his phenogram on a phylogentic tree is purely coincidental. Even if the groups he were to arrive at phenetically were nothing like the groups we'd discover if we had a chance to look at the true tree of life, it wouldn't matter; there are reasons, they think, for representing living things this way independent of evolution.

Although phenetics doesn't provide any information about the evolutionary relationships among species, there is no reason that species identified using phenetics cannot subsequently be subjected to cladistic analysis. Traditionally there has been a great deal of heated debate between pheneticists and cladists, but the two perspectives need not be mutually exclusive. Phenetics is a powerful tool, but it has limitations. The same is true of cladistics. Both have their place in systematics.

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Phenetics was developed by many people, but the most influential are Sneath and Sokal. Their book is still the primary reference for this sub-discipline, although it is now somewhat dated and out of print.

Sneath, P. H. A. & R. R. Sokal. 1973. Numerical taxonomy — The principles and practice of numerical classification. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco. xv + 573 p.

An excellent, recent textbook on numerical techniques used by ecologists and taxonomists is Legendre and Legendre:

Legendre, Pierre & Louis Legendre. 1998. Numerical ecology. 2nd English edition. Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam. xv + 853 pages.

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A. Most men shudder at the thought. I tell them it won't hurt, but they don't believe me until they experience it for themselves. After being coaxed into receiving a test injection in the office, most men are pleasantly surprised to learn that it really doesn't hurt. JAMA 1993, 270:83-90. PubMed Abstract Multiple sclerosis Fainting Myth #2: Erectile dysfunction should just be accepted as a natural part of the aging process. Q. What are the pros and cons of this device? Penile Injection Therapy Backgrounder - Penile injection therapy was discovered fortuitously. In 1980, the French physician Ronald Virag reported that during penile surgery, he inadvertently injected an anesthetized patient in the wrong part of the penis with papaverine - a substance derived from the opium poppy. The resulting relaxation of the smooth muscle of the penile arterial walls created an unexpected two-hour erection. This mistake prompted serious research into the use of injectable medications to relieve ED. Around the same time, Giles Brindley, a British physiologist and research scientist, discovered that injecting the drug phenoxybenzamine into the corpora cavernosa of the penis could produce an erection within minutes. At a meeting in Paris in 1984, New York urologist Dr. Adrian Zorgniotti presented his first case studies of self-injection utilizing a combination of papaverine and phentolamine. The latter drug blocks the action of neurotransmitters that cause vasoconstriction, causing the smooth muscles of the penis to relax. Two years later, Japanese researchers presented evidence that injecting the drug prostaglandin E-1 produced powerful erections. Slowly, news of the favorable results with the injectable medication began to spread within the small international community of urologists who were treating ED. Most began utilizing all three (papaverine, phentolamine, and prostaglandin E-1) in what was referred to as "trimix." Uprima® is a potent agonist of dopamine. Specifically it acts upon D1 receptor sites, and this makes it different from the majority of ergot derived drugs for dopamine improvement, such as bromocriptine, which normally target D2 receptors. (21) Uprima® doesn’t act directly upon the penis like Viagra® or Befar®, but instead exerts its influence in the brain for arousal, pleasure, and orgasm. Uprima® acts upon receptors in the hypothalamus and can enhance erection by increasing the signals from the brain to begin the process. (9) Specifically, Uprima® induces selective activation in the nucleus paraventricularis, leading to erectogenic signals. (15) This is available in 5-mg, 10-mg, and 20-mg doses. This agent has an extended period of responsiveness that can last 36 hours or longer in some men. This agent can be ingested without food restrictions. The other two oral agents can act within an hour; in contrast, tadalafil usually requires a 1 to 2-hour waiting period. The flexibility afforded by this agent takes away the concern about the timing of intercourse. Unlike the other agents, tadalafil has a potential back-pain side effect thought to be due to a PDE-11 effect. A single, small daily dose of tadalafil is being studied as a possible therapeutic alternative to intermittent dosing. This would eliminate the need for carefully timing the taking of the medication and would allow increased freedom of action by patients. †US Food and Drug Administration If your erection problem is occasional, there is no reason to call your health professional. If it occurs frequently but does not bother you or your partner, you may or may not choose to call your doctor. Naturopathic (Natural) Treatment Inserting medications into the urethra (intraurethral suppositories), In a multi-center, double blind study (18), 520 patients (average age of 54) took either 2mg, 4mg, 5mg, 6mg of apomorphine or a placebo. The number of attempts resulting in an erection firm enough for intercourse was recorded, along with the actual attempts resulting in intercourse. Apathy Drug and/or alcohol use Sildenafil has been found to be well tolerated without important side effects. The reported side effects are usually mild, and include headache, flushing, nasal congestion, nausea, dyspepsia, diarrhea, and abnormal vision (seeing a bluish hue or brightness). Read about this Extensive testing required "Men may start out being sexually active, and then as the radiation scarring and damage develops over the next two to three years, there's a gradual decrease in the levels of potency," Brooks said. "With surgery, it's the opposite. There is some initial difficulty, and then things improve over time." Return to top

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