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(Difference between revisions)
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               |  |--[[Cervidae]]
               |  |--[[Cervidae]]
               |  `--Lagomerycidae
               |  `--Lagomerycidae
-
               |      |--''Lagomeryx''
+
               |      |--''Lagomeryx'' Roger 1904
               |      `--''Procervulus'' Gaudry 1878
               |      `--''Procervulus'' Gaudry 1878
               `--+--''Moschus'' [Moschidae, Moschinae]
               `--+--''Moschus'' [Moschidae, Moschinae]
Line 63: Line 63:
                     `--[[Bovidae]]
                     `--[[Bovidae]]
-
Inorganic: ''Moschus moshipus minilorientalus'' Okamura 1987
+
Inorganic: ''Moschus moshipus minilorientalus'' Okamura 1987
 +
 
 +
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of genus indicated
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of genus indicated
== References ==
== References ==
-
 
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Archibald, J. D., A. O. Averianov & E. G. Ekdale. 2001. Late Cretaceous relatives of rabbits, rodents, and other extant eutherian mammals. ''Nature'' 414: 62-65.
 
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Asher, R. J., M. J. Novacek & J. H. Geisler. 2003. Relationships of endemic African mammals and their fossil relatives based on morphological and molecular evidence. ''Journal of Mammalian Evolution'' 10 (1-2): 131-194.
 
Burton, J. A., & V. G. Burton. 1987. ''Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World''. Collins: London.
Burton, J. A., & V. G. Burton. 1987. ''Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World''. Collins: London.
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Chaimanee, Y., V. Suteethorn, P. Jintasakul, C. Vidthayanon, B. Murandat & J.-J. Jaeger. 2004. A new orang-utan relative from the Late Miocene of Thailand. ''Nature'' 427: 439-441.
 
Churcher, C. S. 1978. Giraffidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 509-535. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
Churcher, C. S. 1978. Giraffidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 509-535. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. ''Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian'' 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.
Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. ''Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian'' 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.
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Dubost, G. 1984. Chevrotains. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 76-77. Torstar Books: New York.
 
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Fox, R. C., & B. G. Naylor. 2003. A Late Cretaceous taeniodont (Eutheria, Mammalia) from Alberta, Canada. ''Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie – Abhandlungen'' 229 (3): 393-420.
 
Frädrich, H. 1984. Musk deer. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 78-79. Torstar Books: New York.
Frädrich, H. 1984. Musk deer. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 78-79. Torstar Books: New York.
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Geisler, J. H., & A. E. Sanders. 2003. Morphological evidence for the phylogeny of Cetacea. ''Journal of Mammalian Evolution'' 10 (1-2): 23-129.
 
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Geist, V. 1984. Goat antelopes. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 144-149. Torstar Books: New York.
 
Gentry, A. W. 1978. Tragulidae and Camelidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 536-539. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
Gentry, A. W. 1978. Tragulidae and Camelidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 536-539. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
Gilbert, C., A. Ropiquet & A. Hassanin. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography. ''Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution'' 40 (1): 101-117.
Gilbert, C., A. Ropiquet & A. Hassanin. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography. ''Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution'' 40 (1): 101-117.
-
 
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Gingerich, P. D. 2003. Land-to-sea transition in early whales: Evolution of Eocene Archaeoceti (Cetacea) in relation to skeletal proportions and locomotion of living semiaquatic mammals. ''Paleobiology'' 29 (3): 429-454.
 
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Gordon, C. L. 2003. A first look of estimating body size in dentally conservative marsupials. ''Journal of Mammalian Evolution'' 10 (1-2): 1-21.
 
Hamilton, W. R. 1978. Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 496-508. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
Hamilton, W. R. 1978. Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 496-508. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
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Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 28-39. Torstar Books: New York.
Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 28-39. Torstar Books: New York.
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Ji, Q., Z.-X. Luo, C.-X. Yuan, J. R. Wible, J.-P. Zhang & J. A. Georg. 2002. The earliest known eutherian mammal. ''Nature'' 416: 816-822.
 
Kitchen, D. W. 1984. Pronghorn. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 102-103. Torstar Books: New York.
Kitchen, D. W. 1984. Pronghorn. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 102-103. Torstar Books: New York.
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Luo, Z.-X., R. L. Cifelli & Z. Kielan-Jaworowska. 2001. Dual origin of tribosphenic mammals. ''Nature'' 409: 53-57.
 
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Luo, Z.-X., Q. Ji, J. R. Wible & C.-X. Yuan. 2003. An Early Cretaceous tribosphenic mammal and metatherian evolution. ''Science'' 302: 1934-1940.
 
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MacPhee, R. D. E. 1994. Morphology, adaptations, and relationships of ''Plesiorycteropus'', and a diagnosis of a new order of eutherian mammals. ''Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History'' 220: 1-214.
 
Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of ''Rhombomylus'' (Mammalia, Glires): Implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. ''Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History'' 275: 1-247.
Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of ''Rhombomylus'' (Mammalia, Glires): Implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. ''Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History'' 275: 1-247.
Morales, J., D. Soria & M. Pickford. 1999. New stem giraffoid ruminants from the early and middle Miocene of Namibia. ''Geodiversitas'' 21 (2): 229-253.
Morales, J., D. Soria & M. Pickford. 1999. New stem giraffoid ruminants from the early and middle Miocene of Namibia. ''Geodiversitas'' 21 (2): 229-253.
-
 
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Muizon, C. de, & R. L. Cifelli. 2000. The “condylarths” (archaic Ungulata, Mammalia) from the early Palaeocene of Tiupampa (Bolivia): Implications on the origin of the South American ungulates. ''Geodiversitas'' 22 (1): 47-150.
 
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Murphy, W. J., E. Eizirik, S. J. O’Brien, O. Madsen, M. Scally, C. J. Douady, E. Teeling, O. A. Ryder, M. J. Stanhope, W. W. de Jong & M. S. Springer. 2001. Resolution of the early placental mammal radiation using Bayesian phylogenetics. ''Science'' 294: 2348-2351.
 
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Murray, M. G. 1984. Grazing antelopes. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 120-131. Torstar Books: New York.
 
[[Chonosuke Okamura|Okamura, C.]] 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. ''Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory'' 15: 347-573.
[[Chonosuke Okamura|Okamura, C.]] 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. ''Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory'' 15: 347-573.
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O’Regan, B. P. 1984. Gazelles and dwarf antelopes. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 134-141. Torstar Books: New York.
 
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Pellew, R. A. 1984. Giraffe and okapi. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 94-101. Torstar Books: New York.
 
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Pickford, M. 2002. Early Miocene grassland ecosystem at Bukwa, Mount Elgon, Uganda. ''Comptes Rendus Palevol'' 1: 213-219.
 
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Ralls, K., & K. Kranz. 1984. Duikers. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 116-119. Torstar Books: New York.
 
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Tedford, R. H., & C. R. Harington. 2003. An Arctic mammal fauna from the Early Pliocene of North America. ''Nature'' 425: 388-390.
 
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Underwood, R., & S. J. G. Hall. 1984. Wild cattle and spiral-horned antelopes. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 104-113. Torstar Books: New York.
 
-
 
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Worthy, T. H., & R. N. Holdaway. 2002. ''The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric life of New Zealand''. Indiana University Press: Bloomington (Indiana).
 
==Links==
==Links==
-
{{html}}
+
[http://www.apus.ru/on_site.php?p1=397&amp;p3=0 APUS.RU] (Russian)
-
<a href="http://www.apus.ru/on_site.php?p1=397&amp;p3=0">APUS.RU</a>
+
[http://www.faunistik.net/BSWT/MAMMALIA/UNGULATA/ruminantia_01.html Ungulata- Wiederkäuer - Ruminantia] (German)
-
(Russian); <a href="http://www.faunistik.net/BSWT/MAMMALIA/UNGULATA/ruminantia_01.html">Ungulata- Wiederkäuer - Ruminantia,</a>
+
[http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/icapb/collection/museum/SF-MUS97/text/ruminantia.html Ruminantia page]
-
(German); <a href="http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/icapb/collection/museum/SF-MUS97/text/ruminantia.html">ruminantia page</a>;
+
[http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_46233.htm Evolutionary Consequences of the Radiation of the Ruminantia]
-
<a href="http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_46233.htm">EVOLUTIONARY CONSEQUENCES OF THE RADIATION OF THE RUMINANTIA ( ...</a>;
+
[http://www.fmnh.helsinki.fi/users/haaramo/Metazoa/Deuterostoma/Chordata/Synapsida/Eutheria/Artiodactyla/Ruminantia.htm Ruminantia after Janis, 1987, Norris, 2000 and Vislobokova]
-
<a href="http://www.fmnh.helsinki.fi/users/haaramo/Metazoa/Deuterostoma/Chordata/Synapsida/Eutheria/Artiodactyla/Ruminantia.htm">Ruminantia after Janis, 1987, Norris, 2000 and Vislobokova &amp; ...</a>;
+
[http://www.omne-vivum.com/v/9801.htm Foto-album- Ruminantia]
-
<a href="http://www.omne-vivum.com/v/9801.htm">Foto-album- Ruminantia</a>; <a href="http://www.das-tierlexikon.de/wiederkaeuer.htm">Wiederkäuer</a>
+
[http://www.das-tierlexikon.de/wiederkaeuer.htm Wiederkäuer] (German)
-
(German); <a href="http://www.cmbi.kun.nl/~ursing/abstracts.html">BM Ursing - abstracts</a>;
+
[http://www.cmbi.kun.nl/~ursing/abstracts.html BM Ursing - abstracts]
-
<a href="http://www-biol.paisley.ac.uk/courses/Tatner/biomedia/subunits/subor111.htm">Sub-Unit- Suborder Ruminantia</a>;
+
[http://www-biol.paisley.ac.uk/courses/Tatner/biomedia/subunits/subor111.htm Sub-Unit- Suborder Ruminantia]
-
<a href="http://www.mimersbrunn.se/arbeten/477.asp">Giraffens utveckling - Mimers Brunn</a>
+
[http://www.mimersbrunn.se/arbeten/477.asp Giraffens utveckling - Mimers Brunn] (Swedish)
-
(Swedish).&nbsp;
+
==Credits==
==Credits==
-
* CKT070401 (phylogeny and references)
+
* [[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 04:05, 12 June 2008 (PDT)(phylogeny and references)
* ATW030109  [http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/520Cetartiodactyla/520.600.html#Ruminantia Palaeos com] (information, characters, links)
* ATW030109  [http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/520Cetartiodactyla/520.600.html#Ruminantia Palaeos com] (information, characters, links)
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruminantia Wikipedia] (introduction)
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruminantia Wikipedia] (introduction)

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Parent taxa:
(check the following menu and phylogeny - the taxon in bold refers to the topic on this page)


Taxonomy Phylogeny

:
:
:

  • :
  • Suborder:
  • Suborder: discount levitra
`--
   |== [paraphyletic?]
   |--Antiacodon [Antiacodontidae]
   |--Homacodon [Homacodontidae]
   |--
   `--+--  
      `--
         |--Bunomeryx (Bunomerycidae)
         `--+--
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Ruminantia


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this section is copied from

The suborder Ruminantia includes many of the well-known large grazing or browsing : among them , , , , and . All members of the Ruminantia are : they digest food in two steps, chewing and swallowing in the normal way to begin with, and then regurgitating the semi-digested to re-chew it and thus extract the maximum possible food value.

Note that not all ruminants belong to the Ruminantia. and are among the exceptions. Also, there are a number of other large grazing mammals that, while not strictly ruminants, have similar adaptations for surviving on large quantities of low-grade food. and are examples.


(The following menu and phylogeny refers to subtopics of this page)


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Taxonomy Phylogeny

:
:
:
: discount levitra

  • :
  • Infraorder:
`--discount levitra
   |--
   `-- [paraphyletic]
      |--
      |--
      `--+--
         `--+-Bachitherium [Bachitheriidae]
            `--+--
               |-
               `--+--
                  `--


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Stratigraphic Range: from the Eocene ? Early Oligocene?

Phylogeny: Selenodontia : Camelidae + * : Giraffoidea + (Bovoidea + Cervoidea).

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: usually with horns; lower incisor-like; long ; absent on upper jaw; stomach four-chambered & complex; fused into single, elongated .

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Ruminantia
   |  i. s.: Merycodus Leidy 1854
   |           `--M. sabulonis
   |         Amphimeryx [Amphimerycidae]
   |         Archaeomeryx [Archaeomerycidae]
   |--Tragulina
   |    |--Hypertragulidae [Hypertraguloidea]
   |    |    |--Hypertragulus
   |    |    `--Simimeryx
   |    |--Leptomeryx [Leptomerycidae]
   |    |--
   |    `--Gelocus [Gelocidae]
   |         `--G. whitworthi Hamilton 1973
   `-- [Eupecora]
        |--+--Antilocaprinae [Antilocapridae]
        |  |    |--Alticornis
        |  |    `--Antilocapra americana
        |  |         |--A. a. americana
        |  |         |--A. a. mexicana
        |  |         |--A. a. peninsularis
        |  |         `--A. a. sonoriensis
        |  `--
        `--Cervoidea
             |  i. s.: Hispanomeryx
             |         Ligeromeryx
             |         Stephanocemas
             |--+--Dromomerycidae
             |  |--
             |  `--Lagomerycidae
             |       |--Lagomeryx Roger 1904
             |       `--Procervulus Gaudry 1878
             `--+--Moschus [Moschidae, Moschinae]
                |    |--M. berezovskii
                |    |--M. chrysogaster
                |    |--M. moschiferus
                |    `--M. sifanicus
                `--+--Hoplitomeryx [Hoplitomerycidae]
                   `--
Inorganic: Moschus moshipus minilorientalus Okamura 1987

* Type species of generic name indicated

* Type species of genus indicated

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Burton, J. A., & V. G. Burton. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

Churcher, C. S. 1978. Giraffidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 509-535. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.

Frädrich, H. 1984. Musk deer. In All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 78-79. Torstar Books: New York.

Gentry, A. W. 1978. Tragulidae and Camelidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 536-539. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Gilbert, C., A. Ropiquet & A. Hassanin. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 101-117.

Hamilton, W. R. 1978. Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 496-508. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Hassanin, A., & E. J. P. Douzery. 2003. Molecular and morphological phylogenies of Ruminantia and the alternative position of the Moschidae. Systematic Biology 52 (2): 206-228.

Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 28-39. Torstar Books: New York.

Kitchen, D. W. 1984. Pronghorn. In All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 102-103. Torstar Books: New York.

Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of Rhombomylus (Mammalia, Glires): Implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 275: 1-247.

Morales, J., D. Soria & M. Pickford. 1999. New stem giraffoid ruminants from the early and middle Miocene of Namibia. Geodiversitas 21 (2): 229-253.

1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347-573.

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