Ruminantia

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m (Protected "Ruminantia" ([move=sysop] (indefinite)))
 
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==Characters==
==Characters==
[[Character]]s: usually with horns; lower [[canine]]s incisor-like; long [[diastema]]; [[incisor]]s absent on upper jaw; stomach four-chambered & complex; [[metapodial]]s fused into single, elongated [[cannon bone]].  
[[Character]]s: usually with horns; lower [[canine]]s incisor-like; long [[diastema]]; [[incisor]]s absent on upper jaw; stomach four-chambered & complex; [[metapodial]]s fused into single, elongated [[cannon bone]].  
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==Phylogeny==
 
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[[Cetartiodactyla|<==]]Ruminantia
 
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    |  ''i. s.'': ''Merycodus'' Leidy 1854
 
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    |          `--''M. sabulonis''
 
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    |        ''Amphimeryx'' [Amphimerycidae]
 
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    |        ''Archaeomeryx'' [Archaeomerycidae]
 
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    |--Tragulina
 
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    |    |--Hypertragulidae [Hypertraguloidea]
 
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    |    |    |--''Hypertragulus''
 
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    |    |    `--''Simimeryx''
 
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    |    |--''Leptomeryx'' [Leptomerycidae]
 
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    |    |--[[Tragulidae]]
 
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    |    `--''Gelocus'' [Gelocidae]
 
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    |        `--''G. whitworthi'' Hamilton 1973
 
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    `--[[Pecora]] [Eupecora]
 
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        |--+--Antilocaprinae [Antilocapridae]
 
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        |  |    |--''Alticornis''
 
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        |  |    `--''Antilocapra americana''
 
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        |  |        |--''A. a. americana''
 
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        |  |        |--''A. a. mexicana''
 
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        |  |        |--''A. a. peninsularis''
 
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        |  |        `--''A. a. sonoriensis''
 
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        |  `--[[Giraffoidea]]
 
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        `--Cervoidea
 
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              |  ''i. s.'': ''Hispanomeryx''
 
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              |        ''Ligeromeryx''
 
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              |        ''Stephanocemas''
 
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              |--+--Dromomerycidae
 
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              |  |--[[Cervidae]]
 
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              |  `--Lagomerycidae
 
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              |      |--''Lagomeryx'' Roger 1904
 
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              |      `--''Procervulus'' Gaudry 1878
 
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              `--+--''Moschus'' [Moschidae, Moschinae]
 
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                |    |--''M. berezovskii''
 
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                |    |--''M. chrysogaster''
 
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                |    |--''M. moschiferus''
 
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                |    `--''M. sifanicus''
 
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                `--+--''Hoplitomeryx'' [Hoplitomerycidae]
 
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                    `--[[Bovidae]]
 
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Inorganic: ''Moschus moshipus minilorientalus'' Okamura 1987
 
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
 
== References ==
== References ==
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Burton, J. A., & V. G. Burton. 1987. ''Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World''. Collins: London.
 
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Churcher, C. S. 1978. Giraffidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 509-535. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
 
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Cope, E. D. 1876. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. ''Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian'' 4(2): i-iv, 1-370.
 
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Frädrich, H. 1984. Musk deer. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 78-79. Torstar Books: New York.
 
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Gentry, A. W. 1978. Tragulidae and Camelidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 536-539. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
 
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Gilbert, C., A. Ropiquet & A. Hassanin. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography. ''Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution'' 40 (1): 101-117.
 
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Hamilton, W. R. 1978. Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae. In ''Evolution of African Mammals'' (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds.) pp. 496-508. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).
 
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Hassanin, A., & E. J. P. Douzery. 2003. Molecular and morphological phylogenies of Ruminantia and the alternative position of the Moschidae. ''Systematic Biology'' 52 (2): 206-228.
 
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Janis, C., & P. J. Jarman. 1984. The hoofed mammals. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 28-39. Torstar Books: New York.
 
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Kitchen, D. W. 1984. Pronghorn. In ''All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals'' (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 102-103. Torstar Books: New York.
 
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Meng, J., Y. Hu & C. Li. 2003. The osteology of ''Rhombomylus'' (Mammalia, Glires): Implications for phylogeny and evolution of Glires. ''Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History'' 275: 1-247.
 
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Morales, J., D. Soria & M. Pickford. 1999. New stem giraffoid ruminants from the early and middle Miocene of Namibia. ''Geodiversitas'' 21 (2): 229-253.
 
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[[Chonosuke Okamura|Okamura, C.]] 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. ''Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory'' 15: 347-573.
 
==Links==
==Links==
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==Credits==
==Credits==
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* [[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 04:05, 12 June 2008 (PDT)(phylogeny and references)
 
* ATW030109  [http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/520Cetartiodactyla/520.600.html#Ruminantia Palaeos com] (information, characters, links)
* ATW030109  [http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/520Cetartiodactyla/520.600.html#Ruminantia Palaeos com] (information, characters, links)
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruminantia Wikipedia] (introduction)
* [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruminantia Wikipedia] (introduction)

Latest revision as of 06:36, 8 November 2012

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