Saccharomycotina

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Finally, and most significantly, yeasts show a strong correlation between the age of a gene and its stability.  So, for example, the ancient genes coding for proteins involved in the basic work of transcription and translation are quite stable.  By contrast, genes related  to cell wall synthesis -- functions unique to the fungi and to particular groups within the fungi -- change quite quickly.  This particular study needs to be done at a much higher level of resolution, but the tentative conclusion one may draw is that long-term selective pressures are a significant part of the evolutionary picture.  If so, this data may settle an important and contentious point about the process of evolution.
Finally, and most significantly, yeasts show a strong correlation between the age of a gene and its stability.  So, for example, the ancient genes coding for proteins involved in the basic work of transcription and translation are quite stable.  By contrast, genes related  to cell wall synthesis -- functions unique to the fungi and to particular groups within the fungi -- change quite quickly.  This particular study needs to be done at a much higher level of resolution, but the tentative conclusion one may draw is that long-term selective pressures are a significant part of the evolutionary picture.  If so, this data may settle an important and contentious point about the process of evolution.
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== Phylogeny ==
 
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Usually (e. g., Eriksson ''et al.'', 2003b) the Saccharomycotina are treated as a single order, the [[Saccharomycetales]]. However, as I feel that this redundancy in taxa is not particularly helpful, I here use a less popular classification that divides the class into four orders (Cavalier-Smith, 1998; Schweigkofler, Lopandic ''et al.'', 2002).
 
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[[Ascomycota|<==]]Saccharomycotina [Endomycetes, Hemiascomycetes, Saccharomycetes]
 
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  |  ''i. s.'': ''Brettanomyces nanus''
 
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  |        ''Cliteromyces matritensis''
 
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  |        ''Geotrichum''
 
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  |          |--''G. candidans''
 
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  |          `--''G. fermentans''
 
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  |        ''Schizoblastosporion starkeyihenrici''
 
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  |        ''Ascoidea'' [Ascoideaceae]
 
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  |        ''Cephaloascus'' [Cephaloascaceae]
 
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  |--Saccharomycetidae
 
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  |    |--[[Saccharomycetales]]
 
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  |    `--+--[[Stephanoascales]]
 
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  |      `--[[Dipodascales]]
 
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  `--Lipomycetaceae [Dipomycetidae, Lipomycetales]
 
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        |--''Dipodascopsis uninucleata''
 
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        |--''Babjevia''
 
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        |--''Kawasakia''
 
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        |--''Zygozyma''
 
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        `--''Lipomyces'' [incl. ''Smithiozyma'', ''Waltomyces'']
 
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            |--''L. lipofer''
 
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            `--''L. starkeyi''
 
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of genus indicated
 
== References ==
== References ==
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Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. A revised six-kingdom system of life. ''Biological Reviews'' 73: 203-266.
 
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Eriksson, O. E. (ed.) 1999. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 2440-2755. ''Myconet'' 2: 1-41.
 
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Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, T. Laessøe & G. Rambold (eds.) 2003a. Notes on ascomycete systematics. Nos 3580-3623. ''Myconet'' 9: 91-103.
 
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Eriksson, O. E., H. O. Barah, R. S. Currah, K. Hansen, C. P. Kurtzman, G. Rambold & T. Laessøe (eds.) 2003b. Outline of Ascomycota – 2003. ''Myconet'' 9: 1-89.
 
Gaillardin, C., G. Duchateau-Nguyen, F. Tekaia, B. Llorente, S. Casaregola, C. Toffano-Nioche, M. Aigle, F. Artiguenave, G. Blandin, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, E. Bon, P. Brottier, J. deMontigny, B. Dujon, P. Durrens, A. Lépingle, A. Malpertuy, C. Neuvéglise, O. Ozier-Kalogéropoulos, S. Potier, W. Saurin, M. Termier, M. Wésolowski-Louvel, P. Wincker, J.-L. Souciet & J. Weissenbach. 2000. Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 21. Comparative functional classification of genes. ''FEBS Letters'' 487: 134-149.
Gaillardin, C., G. Duchateau-Nguyen, F. Tekaia, B. Llorente, S. Casaregola, C. Toffano-Nioche, M. Aigle, F. Artiguenave, G. Blandin, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, E. Bon, P. Brottier, J. deMontigny, B. Dujon, P. Durrens, A. Lépingle, A. Malpertuy, C. Neuvéglise, O. Ozier-Kalogéropoulos, S. Potier, W. Saurin, M. Termier, M. Wésolowski-Louvel, P. Wincker, J.-L. Souciet & J. Weissenbach. 2000. Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 21. Comparative functional classification of genes. ''FEBS Letters'' 487: 134-149.
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Jacobs, A., M. P. A. Coetzee, B. D. Wingfield, K. Jacobs & M. J. Wingfield. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships among ''Phialocephala'' species and other ascomycetes. ''Mycologia'' 95 (4): 637-645.
 
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Lang, B. F., C. O’Kelly, T. Nerad, M. W. Gray & G. Burger. 2002. The closest unicellular relatives of animals. ''Current Biology'' 12: 1773-1778.
 
Llorente, B., A. Malpertuy, C. Neuvéglise, J. deMontigny, M. Aigle, F. Artiguenave, G. Blandin, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, E. Bon, P. Brottier, S. Casaregola, P. Durrens, C. Gaillardin, A. Lépingle, O. Ozier-Kalogéropoulos, S. Potier, W. Saurin, F. Tekaia, C. Toffano-Nioche, M. Wésolowski-Louvel, P. Wincker, J. Weissenbach, J.-L. Souciet & B. Dujon. 2000a. Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 18. Comparative analysis of chromosome maps and synteny with ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae''.  ''FEBS Letters'' 487: 101-112.
Llorente, B., A. Malpertuy, C. Neuvéglise, J. deMontigny, M. Aigle, F. Artiguenave, G. Blandin, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, E. Bon, P. Brottier, S. Casaregola, P. Durrens, C. Gaillardin, A. Lépingle, O. Ozier-Kalogéropoulos, S. Potier, W. Saurin, F. Tekaia, C. Toffano-Nioche, M. Wésolowski-Louvel, P. Wincker, J. Weissenbach, J.-L. Souciet & B. Dujon. 2000a. Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 18. Comparative analysis of chromosome maps and synteny with ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae''.  ''FEBS Letters'' 487: 101-112.
Llorente, B., P. Durrens, A. Malpertuy, M. Aigle, F. Artiguenave, G. Blandin, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, E. Bon, P. Brottier, S. Casaregola, B. Dujon, J. deMontigny, A. Lépingle, C. Neuvéglise, O. Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, S. Potier, W. Saurin, F. Tekaia, C. Toffano-Nioche, M. Wésolowski-Louvel, P. Wincker, J. Weissenbach, J.-L. Souciet & C. Gaillardin. 2000b. Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 20. Evolution of gene redundancy compared to ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae''.  ''FEBS Letters'' 487: 122-133.
Llorente, B., P. Durrens, A. Malpertuy, M. Aigle, F. Artiguenave, G. Blandin, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, E. Bon, P. Brottier, S. Casaregola, B. Dujon, J. deMontigny, A. Lépingle, C. Neuvéglise, O. Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, S. Potier, W. Saurin, F. Tekaia, C. Toffano-Nioche, M. Wésolowski-Louvel, P. Wincker, J. Weissenbach, J.-L. Souciet & C. Gaillardin. 2000b. Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 20. Evolution of gene redundancy compared to ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae''.  ''FEBS Letters'' 487: 122-133.
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Lücking, R., & A. Vězda. 1998. Taxonomic status in foliicolous species of the genus ''Porina'' (lichenized Ascomycotina: Trichotheliaceae) - II. The ''Porina epiphylla'' group. ''Willdenowia'' 28: 181-226.
 
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Lumbsch, H. T., I. Schmitt, H. Döring & M. Wedin. 2001. Molecular systematics supports the recognition of an additional order of Ascomycota: The Agyriales. ''Mycological Research'' 105 (1): 16-23.
 
Malpertuy, A., F. Tekaia, S. Casarégola, M. Aigle, F. Artiguenave, G. Blandin, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, E. Bon, P. Brottier, J. deMontigny, P. Durrens, C. Gaillardin, A. Lépingle, B. Llorente, C. Neuvéglise, O. Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, S. Potier, W. Saurin, C. Toffano-Nioche, M. Wésolowski-Louvel, P. Wincker, J. Weissenbach, J.-L. Souciet & B. Dujon. 2000. Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 19. Ascomycetes-specific genes.  ''FEBS Letters'' 487: 113-121.
Malpertuy, A., F. Tekaia, S. Casarégola, M. Aigle, F. Artiguenave, G. Blandin, M. Bolotin-Fukuhara, E. Bon, P. Brottier, J. deMontigny, P. Durrens, C. Gaillardin, A. Lépingle, B. Llorente, C. Neuvéglise, O. Ozier-Kalogeropoulos, S. Potier, W. Saurin, C. Toffano-Nioche, M. Wésolowski-Louvel, P. Wincker, J. Weissenbach, J.-L. Souciet & B. Dujon. 2000. Genomic exploration of the hemiascomycetous yeasts: 19. Ascomycetes-specific genes.  ''FEBS Letters'' 487: 113-121.
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Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. ''Microbiology'' (3rd ed.) Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).
 
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Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). ''Studies in Mycology'' 42: 1-248.
 
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Schweigkofler, W., K. Lopandic, O. Molnár & H. Prillinger. 2002. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships among Ascomycota with yeast phases using ribosomal DNA sequences and cell wall sugars. ''Organisms Diversity & Evolution'' 2: 1-17.
 
'''Credits'''
'''Credits'''
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intro ATW041231, phylogeny CKT061008
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ATW041231

Latest revision as of 03:44, 11 February 2013

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