Scorpiones

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Scorpions have an extensive, albeit notoriously patchy fossil record extending all the way back to the [[Silurian]], where they began as a group of small, eurypterid-like creatures.  They made the transition from marine to terrestrial environments some time between the late Silurian and early Devonian.  All of the marine scorpions would eventually die out during the Devonian due to either climatic changes, or competition and or predation from various predatory [[gnathostome]] [[vertebrates]] and the larger, fiercer [[eurypterid]]s.  
Scorpions have an extensive, albeit notoriously patchy fossil record extending all the way back to the [[Silurian]], where they began as a group of small, eurypterid-like creatures.  They made the transition from marine to terrestrial environments some time between the late Silurian and early Devonian.  All of the marine scorpions would eventually die out during the Devonian due to either climatic changes, or competition and or predation from various predatory [[gnathostome]] [[vertebrates]] and the larger, fiercer [[eurypterid]]s.  
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[[Arachnida|<==]]Scorpiones [Scorpiniata]
 
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    |  ''i. s.'': ''Belisarius xambeui'' Simon 1879 GE02
 
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    |        ''Euscorpius'' [Euscorpiidae] L03
 
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    |          |--''E. flavicaudis'' L03
 
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    |          `--''E. italicus'' SF01
 
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    |        ''Anuroctonus'' GE02
 
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    |        ''Uroctonus'' GE02
 
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    |        ''Vaejovis'' [Vaejovidae] AS-N08
 
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    |          |--''V. bilineatus'' Pocock 1898 AS-N08
 
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    |          |--''V. eusthenura'' SF01
 
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    |          `--''V. spinigerus'' (Wood 1863) AS-N08
 
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    |        ''Mesophonus'' W70
 
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    |        [[Bothriuridae]] OA02
 
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    |        ''Joctonus manicatus'' Thorell 1876 KK84
 
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    |        ''Dacurus galbineus'' (Koch 1838) [=''Centrurus galbineus'', ''C. galbinus'' (''l. c.''), ''Caucon galbineus''] K92
 
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    |        ''Smeringurus aridus'' SF01
 
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    |        ''Megacormus gertschi'' SF01
 
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    |        ''Brotheas'' SF01
 
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    |          |--''B. amazonicus'' Lourenço 1988 L-M-HG08
 
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    |          `--''B. granulatus'' SF01
 
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    |        ''Hemilychas alexandrinus'' (Hirst 1911) V05
 
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    |        ''Broteochactas'' V-MDR07
 
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    |          |--''B. mapuera'' Lourenço 1988 L-M-HG08
 
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    |          `--''B. trezzi'' V-MDR07
 
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    |        ''Stoermeroscorpio'' S07
 
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    |        ''Prearcturus'' S07
 
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    |        ''Pseudouroctonus apacheanus'' (Gertsch & Soleglad 1972) AS-N08
 
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    |--''Palaeoscorpius'' GE02
 
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    `--+--+--[[Orthosterni]] GE02
 
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      |  `--''Proscorpius'' [Palaeoscorpiones] GE02
 
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      |      `--''P. osborni'' GE05
 
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      `--Protoscorpiones GE02
 
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            |--''Dolichophonus'' GE02
 
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            `--Palaeophonidae GE02
 
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                |--''Palaeophonus'' GE02
 
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                `--''Allopalaeophonus'' GE02
 
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Type species of generic name indicated
 
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== References ==
 
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[AS-N08] Aguiar, A. P. N., P. L. Santana-Neto, J. R. B. Souza & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Relationship between litter characteristics and female size in ''Tityus stigmurus'' (Scorpiones, Buthidae). ''Journal of Arachnology'' 36 (2): 464-467.
 
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Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: A combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. ''Cladistics'' 18: 5-70.
 
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[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: A combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. ''Cladistics'' 18: 5-70.
 
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[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. ''Evolution of the Insects''. Cambridge University Press: New York.
 
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[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. ''Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift'' 36 (2): 267-310.
 
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[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884-1890. ''Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet'' vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.
 
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[L-M-HG08] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., T. A. Gardner, M. A. Ribeiro-Júnior, J. Barlow & A. B. Bonaldo. 2008. The value of primary, secondary, and plantation forests for Neotropical epigeic arachnids. ''Journal of Arachnology'' 36 (2): 394-401.
 
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[L03] Lourenço, W. R. 2003. The first scorpion fossil from the Cretaceous amber of France. New implications for the phylogeny of Chactoidea. ''Comptes Rendus Palevol'' 2: 213-219.
 
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[OA02] Ochoa, J. A., & L. E. Acosta. 2002. ''Orobothriurus atiquipa'', a new bothriurid species (Scorpiones) from Lomas in southern Peru. ''Journal of Arachnology'' 30: 98-103.
 
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[S07] Shultz, J. W. 2007. A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological characters. ''Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society'' 150 (2): 221-265.
 
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[SF01] Soleglad, M. E., & V. Fet. 2001. Evolution of scorpion orthobothriotaxy: A cladistic approach. ''Euscorpius'' 1: 1-38.
 
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[V-MDR07] Villarreal-Manzanilla, O., C. DoNascimiento & C. J. Rodríguez. 2007. Two new species of the enigmatic genus ''Stenophareus'' (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnidae) from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield. ''Zootaxa'' 1471: 43-51.
 
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[V05] Volschenk, E. S. 2005. A new technique for examining surface morphosculpture of scorpions. ''Journal of Arachnology'' 33: 820-825.
 
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[W70] Wills, L. J. 1970. The Triassic succession in the central Midlands in its regional setting. ''Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London'' 126: 225-283.
 
'''Credits'''
'''Credits'''
[[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 01:50, 7 August 2010 (UTC)
[[User:Christopher|Christopher]] 01:50, 7 August 2010 (UTC)

Latest revision as of 02:26, 5 October 2012

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