Time

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(Table of geologic time)
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==Table of geologic time==
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== What is time? ==
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The following page is copied [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geological_timescale from Wikipedia] - The divisions in this table are not to scale.
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Time is change and evolution. Time ties together the world we experience. Without time we would only experience objects and ideas randomly without any sort of connection or distinction. Time allows use to understand that everything has an influence beyond the original cause that created it.
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== Table of geologic time ==
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Most of the information on the following page is copied [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geological_timescale from Wikipedia] - The divisions in this table are not to scale.
{| border="0" style="background: #a0a0FF; font-size:95%;"
{| border="0" style="background: #a0a0FF; font-size:95%;"
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! style="background-color:white" | [[Era]]
! style="background-color:white" | [[Era]]
! style="background-color:white" colspan="2" | [[Period]] <sup>1</sup>
! style="background-color:white" colspan="2" | [[Period]] <sup>1</sup>
-
! style="background-color:white" | [[Series]]/<br>[[Epoch]]
+
! style="background-color:white" | [[Epoch]]
! style="background-color:white" | Major Events
! style="background-color:white" | Major Events
! style="background-color:white" | Start, Million<br/>Years Ago<sup>2</sup>
! style="background-color:white" | Start, Million<br/>Years Ago<sup>2</sup>
|-
|-
| rowspan="37" style="{{Color-Phanerozoic}}" | [[Phanerozoic|P<br>h<br>a<br>n<br>e<br>r<br>o<br>z<br>o<br>i<br>c]]
| rowspan="37" style="{{Color-Phanerozoic}}" | [[Phanerozoic|P<br>h<br>a<br>n<br>e<br>r<br>o<br>z<br>o<br>i<br>c]]
-
| rowspan="7" style="{{Color-Cenozoic}}" | [[Cenozoic|C<br>e<br>n<br>o<br>z<br>o<br>i<br>c]]
+
| rowspan="7" style="{{Color-Cenozoic}}" | [[Cenozoic|C<br>e<br>n<br>o<br>z<br>o<br>i<br>c]]<sup>3</sup>
-
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Neogene}}" rowspan="4" | [[Neogene]]<sup>3</sup>
+
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Quaternary}}" rowspan="2" | [[Quaternary]]
| style="{{Color-Holocene}}" | [[Holocene]]
| style="{{Color-Holocene}}" | [[Holocene]]
| style="background-color:white" | End of [[ice age|recent glaciation]] and rise of agriculture (c.10000 BCE) and [[civilization]] (c.3500 BCE) in the Fertile Crescent.
| style="background-color:white" | End of [[ice age|recent glaciation]] and rise of agriculture (c.10000 BCE) and [[civilization]] (c.3500 BCE) in the Fertile Crescent.
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| style="{{Color-Pleistocene}}" | 1.806 ± 0.005 <sup>*</sup>
| style="{{Color-Pleistocene}}" | 1.806 ± 0.005 <sup>*</sup>
|-
|-
 +
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Neogene}}" rowspan="2" | [[Neogene]]
| style="{{Color-Pliocene}}" |[[Pliocene]]
| style="{{Color-Pliocene}}" |[[Pliocene]]
-
| style="background-color:white" | Intensification of present [[ice age]]; cool and dry [[climate]]. [[Australopithecine]]s, many of the existing genera of mammals, and recent [[mollusk]]s appear. ''[[Homo habilis]]'' appears.
+
| style="background-color:white" | Intensification of present [[ice age]]; cool and dry [[climate]]. [[Australopithecine]]s, many of the existing genera of mammals, and recent [[mollusk]]s appear. ''[[Homo habilis]]'' appears during the end of this period (c.2.5 Mya).
| style="{{Color-Pliocene}}" | 5.332 ± 0.005 <sup>*</sup>
| style="{{Color-Pliocene}}" | 5.332 ± 0.005 <sup>*</sup>
|-
|-
| style="{{Color-Miocene}}" | [[Miocene]]
| style="{{Color-Miocene}}" | [[Miocene]]
-
| style="background-color:white" | Moderate climate; [[Orogeny]] in [[northern hemisphere]]. Modern [[mammal]] and [[bird]] families became recognizable. [[Equidae|Horses]] and [[mastodon]]s diverse. [[Grass]]es become ubiquitous. First [[ape]]s appear. <!-- for reference see the article: "Sahelanthropus tchadensis" -->
+
| style="background-color:white" | Moderate climate; [[Orogeny]] in [[northern hemisphere]]. Modern [[mammal]] and [[bird]] families became recognizable. [[Equidae|Horses]] and [[mastodon]]s diverse. [[Grass]]es become ubiquitous. First [[ape]]s appear. The common ancestor of Humans and Chimpanzees lived during this period.<!-- for reference see the article: "Sahelanthropus tchadensis" -->
| style="{{Color-Miocene}}" | 23.03 ± 0.05 <sup>*</sup>
| style="{{Color-Miocene}}" | 23.03 ± 0.05 <sup>*</sup>
|-
|-
-
| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Paleogene}}" | [[Paleogene]]<br><sup>3</sup>
+
| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Paleogene}}" | [[Paleogene]]<br>
| style="{{Color-Oligocene}}" | [[Oligocene]]
| style="{{Color-Oligocene}}" | [[Oligocene]]
| style="background-color:white" | Warm climate; Rapid [[evolution]] and diversification of fauna, especially [[mammal]]s. Major evolution and dispersal of modern types of [[flowering plant]]s
| style="background-color:white" | Warm climate; Rapid [[evolution]] and diversification of fauna, especially [[mammal]]s. Major evolution and dispersal of modern types of [[flowering plant]]s
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| rowspan="2" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Cretaceous}}" | [[Cretaceous]]
| rowspan="2" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Cretaceous}}" | [[Cretaceous]]
| style="{{Color-Late-Cretaceous}}" | [[Late Cretaceous|Upper/Late]]
| style="{{Color-Late-Cretaceous}}" | [[Late Cretaceous|Upper/Late]]
-
| rowspan="2" style="background-color:white" | [[Flowering plant]]s proliferate, along with new types of insects. More modern [[teleost]] fish begin to appear. [[Ammonite]]s, [[Belemnoidea|belemnites]], [[rudist]] [[Bivalvia|bivalve]]s, [[Echinoidea|echinoid]]s and [[Porifera|sponges]] all common. Many new types of [[dinosaur]]s (e.g. [[Tyrannosauridae|Tyrannosaurs]], [[Titanosauridae|Titanosaurs]], [[Hadrosauridae|duck bills]], and [[Ceratopsidae|horned dinosaurs]]) evolve on land, as do [[Crocodilia|modern crocodilians]]; and [[mosasaur]]s and modern sharks appear in the sea. Primitive [[bird]]s gradually replace pterosaurs. [[Monotremes]], [[marsupial]]s and [[Eutheria|placental]] mammals appear. Break up of [[Gondwana]].
+
| rowspan="2" style="background-color:white" | [[Flowering plant]]s proliferate, along with new types of insects. More modern [[teleost]] fish begin to appear. [[Ammonite]]s, [[Belemnoidea|belemnites]], [[rudist]] [[Bivalvia|bivalve]]s, [[Echinoidea|echinoid]]s and [[Porifera|sponges]] all common. Many new types of [[dinosaur]]s (e.g. [[Tyrannosauridae|Tyrannosaurs]], [[Titanosauridae|Titanosaurs]], [[Hadrosauridae|duck bills]], and [[Ceratopsidae|horned dinosaurs]]) evolve on land, as do [[Crocodilia|modern crocodilians]]; and [[mosasaur]]s and modern sharks appear in the sea. Primitive [[bird]]s gradually replace pterosaurs. [[Monotremes]], [[marsupial]]s and [[Eutheria|placental]] mammals appear. Break up of [[Gondwana]]. Possible appearance of first [[primates]].
| style="{{Color-Late-Cretaceous}}" | 99.6±0.9 <sup>*</sup>
| style="{{Color-Late-Cretaceous}}" | 99.6±0.9 <sup>*</sup>
|-
|-
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| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Triassic}}" | [[Triassic]]
| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Triassic}}" | [[Triassic]]
| style="{{Color-Late-Triassic}}" | [[Late Triassic|Upper/Late]]
| style="{{Color-Late-Triassic}}" | [[Late Triassic|Upper/Late]]
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| rowspan="3" style="background-color:white" | [[Archosaur]]s dominant on land as [[dinosaur]]s, in the oceans as [[Ichthyosaur]]s and [[nothosaur]]s, and in the air as [[pterosaur]]s. [[cynodont]]s become smaller and more mammal-like, while first [[mammal]]s and [[crocodilia]] appear. ''[[Dicrodium]]'' flora common on land. Many large aquatic [[temnospondyli|temnospondyl]] amphibians. [[Ammonite|Ceratitic ammonoids]] extremely common. [[Scleractinia|Modern corals]] and [[teleost]] fish appear, as do many modern [[insect]] clades.
+
| rowspan="3" style="background-color:white" | [[Diapsid]]s dominant on land as [[dinosaur]]s, in the oceans as [[ichthyosaur]]s and [[nothosaur]]s, and in the air as [[pterosaur]]s. [[Cynodont]]s become smaller and more mammal-like, while first [[mammal]]s and [[crocodylia]]ns appear. ''[[Dicrodium]]'' flora common on land. Many large aquatic [[temnospondyli|temnospondyl]] amphibians. [[Ammonite|Ceratitic ammonoids]] extremely common. [[Scleractinia|Modern corals]] and [[teleost]] fish appear, as do many modern [[insect]] clades.
| style="{{Color-Late-Triassic}}" | 228.0 ± 2.0
| style="{{Color-Late-Triassic}}" | 228.0 ± 2.0
|-
|-
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| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Permian}}" | [[Permian]]
| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Permian}}" | [[Permian]]
| style="{{Color-Lopingian}}" | [[Lopingian]]
| style="{{Color-Lopingian}}" | [[Lopingian]]
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| rowspan="3" style="background-color:white" |  Landmasses unite into supercontinent [[Pangea]], creating the [[Appalachian]]s. End of Permo-Carboniferous glaciation. [[Synapsida|Synapsid]] [[Reptilia|reptile]]s ([[pelycosaur]]s and [[therapsid]]s) become plentiful, while [[parareptile]]s and [[temnospondyli|temnospondyl]] [[Amphibia|amphibian]]s remain common. In the mid-Permian, [[coal]]-age flora are replaced by [[cone]]-bearing [[gymnosperm]]s (the first true [[seed plants]]) and by the first true [[Bryophyta|moss]]es. [[Beetles]] and [[Diptera|flies]] evolve. Marine life flourishes in warm shallow reefs; [[Productida|productid]] and [[Spiriferida|spiriferid]] brachiopods, bivalves, [[foraminifera|foram]]s, and [[orthocerid|ammonoid]]s all abundant. [[Permian-Triassic extinction event]] occurs 251 mya: 95 percent of life on Earth becomes extinct, including all [[trilobite]]s, [[graptolite]]s, and [[blastoid]]s.
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| rowspan="3" style="background-color:white" |  Landmasses unite into supercontinent [[Pangea]], creating the [[Appalachian]]s. End of Permo-Carboniferous glaciation. [[Synapsida|Synapsid]] [[Reptilia|reptile]]s ([[pelycosaur]]s and [[therapsid]]s) become plentiful, while [[parareptile]]s and [[temnospondyli|temnospondyl]] [[Amphibia|amphibian]]s remain common. In the mid-Permian, [[coal]]-age flora are replaced by [[cone]]-bearing [[gymnosperm]]s (the first true [[seed plants]]) and by the first true [[Bryophyta|moss]]es. [[Beetles]] and [[Diptera|flies]] evolve. Marine life flourishes in warm shallow reefs; [[Productida|productid]] and [[Spiriferida|spiriferid]] brachiopods, [[bivalve]]s, [[foraminifera|foram]]s, and [[orthocerid|ammonoid]]s all abundant. [[Permian-Triassic extinction event]] occurs 251 mya: 95 percent of life on Earth becomes extinct, including all [[trilobite]]s, [[graptolite]]s, and [[blastoid]]s.
| style="{{Color-Lopingian}}" | 260.4 ± 0.7 <sup>*</sup>
| style="{{Color-Lopingian}}" | 260.4 ± 0.7 <sup>*</sup>
|-
|-
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| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Mississippian}}" | [[Carboniferous|Carbon-<br>iferous]]<sup>4</sup>'''/'''<br>[[Mississippian|Missis-<br>sippian]]
| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Mississippian}}" | [[Carboniferous|Carbon-<br>iferous]]<sup>4</sup>'''/'''<br>[[Mississippian|Missis-<br>sippian]]
| style="{{Color-Late-Mississippian}}" | [[Late Mississippian|Upper/Late]]
| style="{{Color-Late-Mississippian}}" | [[Late Mississippian|Upper/Late]]
-
| rowspan="3" style="background-color:white" | Large [[Lycopodiophyta|primitive tree]]s, first [[Tetrapoda|land vertebrate]]s, and amphibious [[eurypterid|sea-scorpion]]s live amid [[coal]]-forming coastal [[brackish water|swamp]]s. Lobe-finned [[rhizodont]]s are big fresh-water predators. In the oceans, early [[Chondrichthyes|shark]]s are common and quite diverse; [[echinoderm]]s (esp. [[crinoid]]s and [[blastoid]]s) abundant. [[Coral]]s, [[bryozoa]], [[Goniatitida|goniatite]]s and brachiopods ([[Productida]], [[Spiriferida]], etc.) very common. But [[Trilobita|trilobite]]s and [[nautiloid]]s decline. [[Glaciation]] in East [[Gondwana]].
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| rowspan="3" style="background-color:white" | Large [[Lycopodiopsida|primitive tree]]s, first [[Tetrapoda|land vertebrate]]s, and amphibious [[eurypterid|sea-scorpion]]s live amid [[coal]]-forming coastal [[brackish water|swamp]]s. Lobe-finned [[rhizodont]]s are big fresh-water predators. In the oceans, early [[Chondrichthyes|shark]]s are common and quite diverse; [[echinoderm]]s (esp. [[crinoid]]s and [[blastoid]]s) abundant. [[Coral]]s, [[bryozoa]], [[Goniatitida|goniatite]]s and brachiopods ([[Productida]], [[Spiriferida]], etc.) very common. But [[Trilobita|trilobite]]s and [[nautiloid]]s decline. [[Glaciation]] in East [[Gondwana]].
| style="{{Color-Late-Mississippian}}" | 326.4 ± 1.6
| style="{{Color-Late-Mississippian}}" | 326.4 ± 1.6
|-
|-
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| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Devonian}}" | [[Devonian]]
| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Devonian}}" | [[Devonian]]
| style="{{Color-Late-Devonian}}" | [[Late Devonian|Upper/Late]]
| style="{{Color-Late-Devonian}}" | [[Late Devonian|Upper/Late]]
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| rowspan="3" style="background-color:white" | First [[Lycopodiopsida|clubmoss]]es, [[Equisetophyta|horsetail]]s and [[fern]]s appear, as do the first [[seed]]-bearing plants ([[progymnosperm]]s), first [[tree]]s (the tree-fern ''[[Archaeopteris]]''), and first (wingless) [[Insecta|insect]]s. [[Strophomenida|Strophomenid]] and [[Atrypida|atrypid]] [[brachiopod]]s, [[Rugosa|rugose]] and [[Tabulata|tabulate]] corals, and [[crinoid]]s are all abundant in the oceans. [[Goniatite]] [[Ammonite|ammonoids]] are plentiful, while squid-like [[Coleoidea|coleoids]] arise. Trilobites and armoured agnaths decline, while jawed fishes ([[Placodermi|placoderm]]s, [[Sarcopterygii|lobe-finned]] and [[Osteichthyes|ray-finned]] fish, and early [[Chondrichthyes|sharks]]) rule the seas. First [[Tetrapod|amphibian]]s still aquatic. "Old Red Continent" of [[Euramerica]].
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| rowspan="3" style="background-color:white" | First [[Lycopodiopsida|clubmoss]]es, [[Equisetophyta|horsetail]]s and [[fern]]s appear, as do the first [[seed]]-bearing plants ([[progymnosperm]]s), first [[tree]]s (the tree-fern ''[[Archaeopteris]]''), and first (wingless) [[Insecta|insect]]s. [[Strophomenida|Strophomenid]] and [[Atrypida|atrypid]] [[brachiopod]]s, [[Rugosa|rugose]] and [[Tabulata|tabulate]] corals, and [[crinoid]]s are all abundant in the oceans. [[Goniatite]] [[Ammonoidea|ammonoids]] are plentiful, while squid-like [[Coleoidea|coleoids]] arise. [[Trilobite]]s and [[Ostracodermi|armoured agnaths]] decline, while jawed fishes ([[Placodermi|placoderm]]s, [[Sarcopterygii|lobe-finned]] and [[Osteichthyes|ray-finned]] fish, and early [[Chondrichthyes|sharks]]) rule the seas. First [[Tetrapod|amphibian]]s still aquatic. "Old Red Continent" of [[Euramerica]].
| style="{{Color-Late-Devonian}}" | 385.3 ± 2.6 <sup>*</sup>
| style="{{Color-Late-Devonian}}" | 385.3 ± 2.6 <sup>*</sup>
|-
|-
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| rowspan="4" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Silurian}}" | [[Silurian]]
| rowspan="4" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Silurian}}" | [[Silurian]]
| style="{{Color-Pridoli}}" | [[Pridoli]]
| style="{{Color-Pridoli}}" | [[Pridoli]]
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| rowspan="4" style="background-color:white" | First [[Vascular tissue|vascular]] [[Plantae|plant]]s (the [[whisk fern]]s and their relatives), first [[millipede]]s and [[Arthropleurida|arthropleurid]]s on land. First jawed [[fish]]es, as well as many [[ostracoderm|armoured]] [[agnatha|jawless]] fish, populate the seas. [[Eurypterid|Sea-scorpions]] reach large size. [[Tabulate coral|Tabulate]] and [[Rugosa|rugose]] corals, [[brachiopod]]s (''Pentamerida'', [[Rhynchonellida]], etc.), and [[crinoid]]s all abundant. [[Trilobite]]s and [[mollusk]]s diverse; [[graptolite]]s not as varied.
+
| rowspan="4" style="background-color:white" | First [[vascular plant]]s (the [[whisk fern]]s and their relatives), first [[millipede]]s and [[Arthropleurida|arthropleurid]]s on land. First jawed [[fish]]es, as well as many [[ostracoderm|armoured]] [[agnatha|jawless]] fish, populate the seas. [[Eurypterid|Sea-scorpions]] reach large size. [[Tabulate coral|Tabulate]] and [[Rugosa|rugose]] corals, [[brachiopod]]s ([[Pentamerida]], [[Rhynchonellida]], etc.), and [[crinoid]]s all abundant. [[Trilobite]]s and [[mollusk]]s diverse; [[graptolite]]s not as varied.
| style="{{Color-Pridoli}}" | 418.7 ± 2.7 <sup>*</sup>
| style="{{Color-Pridoli}}" | 418.7 ± 2.7 <sup>*</sup>
|-
|-
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| style="{{Color-Wenlock}}" | 428.2 ± 2.3 <sup>*</sup>
| style="{{Color-Wenlock}}" | 428.2 ± 2.3 <sup>*</sup>
|-
|-
-
| style="{{Color-Llandovery}}" | Lower/Early ([[Llandovery epoch|Llandovery]])
+
| style="{{Color-Llandovery}}" | Lower/Early ([[Llandovery]])
| style="{{Color-Llandovery}}" | 443.7 ± 1.5 <sup>*</sup>  
| style="{{Color-Llandovery}}" | 443.7 ± 1.5 <sup>*</sup>  
|-
|-
| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Ordovician}}" | [[Ordovician]]
| rowspan="3" colspan="2" style="{{Color-Ordovician}}" | [[Ordovician]]
| style="{{Color-Late-Ordovician}}" | [[Late Ordovician|Upper/Late]]
| style="{{Color-Late-Ordovician}}" | [[Late Ordovician|Upper/Late]]
-
| rowspan="3" style="background-color:white" | [[Invertebrate]]s diversify into many new types (e.g., long [[orthoconic|straight-shelled]] [[orthocerida|cephalopods]]). Early [[coral]]s, articulate [[brachiopod]]s (''Orthida'', ''Strophomenida'', etc.), [[Bivalvia|bivalves]], [[nautiloid]]s, [[trilobite]]s, [[ostracod]]s, [[bryozoa]], many types of [[echinoderms]] ([[crinoid]]s, [[Cystoidea|cystoids]], [[Asteroidea|starfish]], etc.), branched [[graptolite]]s, and other taxa all common. [[Conodont]]s (early [[plankton]]ic [[vertebrate]]s) appear. First [[Plantae|green plant]]s and [[fungus|fungi]] on land. Ice age at end of period. First sharks appear (c.450–420 MYA).
+
| rowspan="3" style="background-color:white" | [[Invertebrate]]s diversify into many new types (e.g., long [[orthoconic|straight-shelled]] [[orthocerida|cephalopods]]). Early [[coral]]s, articulate [[brachiopod]]s (''Orthida'', ''Strophomenida'', etc.), [[Bivalvia|bivalves]], [[nautiloid]]s, [[trilobite]]s, [[ostracod]]s, [[bryozoa]], many types of [[echinoderms]] ([[crinoid]]s, [[Cystoidea|cystoids]], [[Asteroidea|starfish]], etc.), branched [[graptolite]]s, and other taxa all common. [[Conodont]]s (early [[vertebrate]]s) appear. First [[Plantae|green plant]]s and [[fungus|fungi]] on land. Ice age at end of period. First [[Chondrichthyes|sharks]] appear (c.450–420 MYA).
| style="{{Color-Late-Ordovician}}" | 460.9 ± 1.6 <sup>*</sup>
| style="{{Color-Late-Ordovician}}" | 460.9 ± 1.6 <sup>*</sup>
|-
|-
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|-
|-
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Ectasian}}" | [[Ectasian]]
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Ectasian}}" | [[Ectasian]]
-
| colspan="2" style="background-color:white" | [[Platform cover]]s continue to expand. [[Green algae]] [[colony (biology)|colonies]] in the seas.
+
| colspan="2" style="background-color:white" | [[Platform cover]]s continue to expand. [[Green algae]] colonies in the seas.
| style="{{Color-Ectasian}}" | 1400  
| style="{{Color-Ectasian}}" | 1400  
|-
|-
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|-
|-
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Orosirian}}" | [[Orosirian]]
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Orosirian}}" | [[Orosirian]]
-
| colspan="2" style="background-color:white" | The [[Earth's atmosphere|atmosphere]] became [[oxygen]]ic. [[Vredefort crater|Vredefort]] and [[Sudbury Basin]] asteroid impacts. Much [[orogeny]].
+
| colspan="2" style="background-color:white" | The [[atmosphere]] became [[oxygen]]ic. [[Vredefort crater|Vredefort]] and [[Sudbury Basin]] asteroid impacts. Much [[orogeny]].
| style="{{Color-Orosirian}}" | 2050  
| style="{{Color-Orosirian}}" | 2050  
|-
|-
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Rhyacian}}" | [[Rhyacian]]
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Rhyacian}}" | [[Rhyacian]]
-
| colspan="2" style="background-color:white" | [[Bushveld|Bushveld Formation]] occurs. [[Huronian]] glaciation occurs possibly as a result of the increase of free oxygen and the decrease of co2 and methane in the atmosphere.
+
| colspan="2" style="background-color:white" | [[Bushveld|Bushveld Formation]] occurs. [[Huronian]] glaciation occurs possibly as a result of the increase of free oxygen and the decrease of CO<sub>2</sub> and methane in the atmosphere.
| style="{{Color-Rhyacian}}" | 2300  
| style="{{Color-Rhyacian}}" | 2300  
|-
|-
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Siderian}}" | [[Siderian]]
| colspan="2" style="{{Color-Siderian}}" | [[Siderian]]
-
| colspan="2" style="background-color:white" | [[Oxygen Catastrophe]]: [[banded iron formation]]s result. Many clades of anaerobic co2 dependent microorganisms may have died in a mass extinction that resulted from the oxygen catastrophe.
+
| colspan="2" style="background-color:white" | [[Oxygen Catastrophe]]: [[banded iron formation]]s result. Many clades of anaerobic CO<sub>2</sub> dependent microorganisms may have died in a mass extinction that resulted from the oxygen catastrophe.
| style="{{Color-Siderian}}" | 2500  
| style="{{Color-Siderian}}" | 2500  
|-
|-
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|-
|-
| style="{{Color-Mesoarchean}}" | [[Mesoarchean|Meso<br>archean]]
| style="{{Color-Mesoarchean}}" | [[Mesoarchean|Meso<br>archean]]
-
| colspan="4" style="background-color:white" | First [[stromatolite]]s (probably [[colony (biology)|colonial]] [[cyanobacteria]]).  Oldest [[macrofossil]]s.
+
| colspan="4" style="background-color:white" | First [[stromatolite]]s (probably colonial [[cyanobacteria]]).  Oldest [[macrofossil]]s.
| style="{{Color-Mesoarchean}}" | 3200  
| style="{{Color-Mesoarchean}}" | 3200  
|-
|-
-
| style="{{Color-Paleoarchean}}" | [[Paleparchean|Paleo<br>arch<br>ean]]
+
| style="{{Color-Paleoarchean}}" | [[Paleoarchean|Paleo<br>arch<br>ean]]
-
| colspan="4" style="background-color:white" | First known [[phototroph|oxygen-producing]] [[Eubacteria|bacteria]].  Oldest definitive [[microfossil]]s.
+
| colspan="4" style="background-color:white" | First known [[phototroph|oxygen-producing]] [[Eubacteria|bacteria]].  Oldest definitive [[microfossil]]s. Earliest continent [[Vaalbara]] forms (c 3600 or 3300 Mya).  
| style="{{Color-Paleoarchean}}" | 3600
| style="{{Color-Paleoarchean}}" | 3600
|-
|-
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|-
|-
| style="{{Color-Hadean-EHB}}" | [[Cryptic era|Cryptic]]
| style="{{Color-Hadean-EHB}}" | [[Cryptic era|Cryptic]]
-
| colspan="4" style="background-color:white" | Formation of [[earth]] (4570 [[annum|mya]]). Oldest known [[mineral]] (4400 mya).  
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| colspan="4" style="background-color:white" | Formation of the [[Earth]] (4570 [[annum|mya]]). Oldest known [[mineral]] (4400 mya). Formation of first possible oceans (c 4400 Mya). Collision of the planet [[Thea]] and the [[Earth]] creates the [[moon]].
| style="{{Color-Hadean-EHB}}" | c.4570
| style="{{Color-Hadean-EHB}}" | c.4570
|}
|}
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==References and footnotes==
==References and footnotes==
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note 1. Paleontologists often refer to [[faunal stage]]s rather than geologic (geological) periods. The stage nomenclature is quite complex. See [http://flatpebble.nceas.ucsb.edu/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?action=startScale title=The Paleobiology Database] for an excellent time ordered list of faunal stages.
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note 1. Paleontologists often refer to [[faunal stage]]s rather than geologic (geological) periods. The stage nomenclature is quite complex. See [http://flatpebble.nceas.ucsb.edu/cgi-bin/bridge.pl?action=startScale The Paleobiology Database] for an excellent time ordered list of faunal stages.
note 2. Dates are slightly uncertain with differences of a few percent between various sources being common. This is largely due to uncertainties in [[radiometric dating]] and the problem that deposits suitable for radiometric dating seldom occur exactly at the places in the geologic column where they would be most useful. The dates and errors quoted above are according to the [[International Commission on Stratigraphy]] 2004 time scale. Dates labeled with a * indicate boundaries where a [[Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point]] has been internationally agreed upon: see [[List of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points]] for a complete list.
note 2. Dates are slightly uncertain with differences of a few percent between various sources being common. This is largely due to uncertainties in [[radiometric dating]] and the problem that deposits suitable for radiometric dating seldom occur exactly at the places in the geologic column where they would be most useful. The dates and errors quoted above are according to the [[International Commission on Stratigraphy]] 2004 time scale. Dates labeled with a * indicate boundaries where a [[Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point]] has been internationally agreed upon: see [[List of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points]] for a complete list.
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note 3. Historically, the [[Cenozoic]] has been divided up into the [[Quaternary]] and [[Tertiary]] sub-eras, as well as the [[Neogene]] and [[Paleogene]] periods. However, the International Commission on Stratigraphy has recently decided to stop endorsing the terms Quaternary and Tertiary as part of the formal nomenclature.
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note 3. Historically, the [[Cenozoic]] has been divided up into the [[Quaternary]] and [[Tertiary]] sub-eras, as well as the [[Neogene]] and [[Paleogene]] periods. In recent years, the [[International Commission on Stratigraphy]] first decided to stop endorsing the terms Quaternary and Tertiary as part of the formal nomenclature, then to switch to a three-period scheme consisting of Paleogene, Neogene, and Quaternary, as shown. This probably ensures that everyone is equally unhappy.
note 4. In North America, the Carboniferous is subdivided into [[Mississippian]] and [[Pennsylvanian]] Periods.
note 4. In North America, the Carboniferous is subdivided into [[Mississippian]] and [[Pennsylvanian]] Periods.
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note 9. The start time for the [[Holocene]] epoch is here given as 11,430 [[before present|years ago]] ± 130 years (that is, between 9610 B.C. and 9350 B.C.). For further discussion of the dating of this epoch, see [[Holocene]].
note 9. The start time for the [[Holocene]] epoch is here given as 11,430 [[before present|years ago]] ± 130 years (that is, between 9610 B.C. and 9350 B.C.). For further discussion of the dating of this epoch, see [[Holocene]].
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* [http://www.stratigraphy.org/geowhen/ GeoWhen Database ]
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* [http://www.stratigraphy.org/bak/geowhen/timelinestages.html GeoWhen Database ]
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* [http://www.stratigraphy.org/gssp.htm International Commission on Stratigraphy Time Scale ]
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* [http://www.stratigraphy.org/upload/ISChart2009.pdf International Commission on Stratigraphy Time Scale]
* [http://www.chronos.org CHRONOS ]
* [http://www.chronos.org CHRONOS ]
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* [http://www.chronos.org/education/educational_resources.html CHRONOS Geologic Time references ]
 
* [http://www.nmnh.si.edu/paleo/geotime/index.htm National Museum of Natural History - Geologic Time ]
* [http://www.nmnh.si.edu/paleo/geotime/index.htm National Museum of Natural History - Geologic Time ]
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* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/games/rocky/indextime.html BBC Interactive Time Line]
 
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